About This Journal

Horticultural Science and Technology (abbr. Hortic. Sci. Technol., herein ‘HST’; ISSN, 1226-8763), one of the two official journals of the Korean Society for Horticultural Science (KSHS), was launched in 1998 to provide scientific and professional publication on technology and sciences of horticultural area. As an international journal, HST is published in English and Korean, bimonthly on the last day of even number months, and indexed in ‘SCIE’, ‘SCOPUS’ and ‘CABI’. The HST is devoted for the publication of technical and academic papers and review articles on such arears as cultivation physiology, protected horticulture, postharvest technology, genetics and breeding, tissue culture and biotechnology, and other related to vegetables, fruit, ornamental, and herbal plants.

 

2019 Impact Factor 0.695

 

  • Research Article

    Drought Tolerance of ‘Fuji’ Apple Trees Grafted onto G, CG, or M Series Rootstocks: Growth and Physiology
    Byeong-Ho Choi, Narayan Bhusal, Woo-Tae Jeong, In-Hee Park, Su-Gon Han, and Tae-Myung Yoon
    In this study, we assessed the drought tolerance of 1-year-old apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) trees exposed to extreme water stress, focusing on ... + READ MORE
    In this study, we assessed the drought tolerance of 1-year-old apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) trees exposed to extreme water stress, focusing on growth and physiological responses. After grafting ‘Fuji’ variety onto M26 and M9 rootstocks or Cornell-Geneva rootstocks (G11, G202, G214, G935, CG4814, and CG5087), the grafted plants were planted in 17-L pots and managed in a greenhouse. After irrigation was stopped, soil water potential dropped to about –700 hPa in 12 days. The leaf water potential and tree vertical growth rate of drought-stressed trees decreased dramatically, and the decreased growth rate of the G202, G935, and M26 trees, which generally produced a large leaf area, was considerable. Trunk cross-sectional area and leaf area of all trees under drought stress were reduced by almost 50% or more than 60%, respectively. Drought-stressed trees were subjected to control-level irrigation during the recovery of about 11 days, but their leaf water potential still did not fully recover to the control level. Photosynthesis-related parameters also showed a substantial decrease as the soil water potential changed, but the difference among trees was not noticeable. Fine root (<2 mm diameter) dry weight showed the greatest decrease in the CG5087 tree, whereas the G935 tree was insensitive. The root:shoot biomass ratio of the CG5087 and M26 trees was 0.24 and 0.23, respectively, and 0.38 for the G214 and CG4814 trees. The CG5087 tree was the most sensitive to drought stress, whereas drought tolerance was higher in the G202, G214, and G935 trees than in the M26 tree, which had a comparable drought tolerance to the G11, CG4814, and M9 trees. - COLLAPSE
    October 2020
  • Research Article

    Flowering and Photosynthetic Responses of Phalaenopsis under Elevated CO2 and Nutrient Supply
    The demand for phalaenopsis has been increasing in areas including Thailand, Japan, and the United States. Increasing atmospheric CO2 during the ... + READ MORE
    The demand for phalaenopsis has been increasing in areas including Thailand, Japan, and the United States. Increasing atmospheric CO2 during the night improves the productivity and quality of phalaenopsis flowers. Because nutrient requirements change under conditions of elevated CO2, the interactive effects of CO2 enrichment and nutrient supply require particular attention. Our study aimed to discover the effect of nutrient treatments on phalaenopsis using electrical conductivity (EC) when applying CO2 in the greenhouse. We investigated the flowering and photosynthetic responses of Phalaenopsis Queen Beer ‘Mantefon’ and ‘Jupiter’ in response to EC-based nutrients supplied with 1.0 (control) and 2.0 dS·m-1 and two levels of ambient and elevated CO2 (≈ 650 µmol·mol-1 CO2) for a period of 21 weeks of treatment (WOT). A longer first flower spike was produced in the plants exposed to EC 2.0 dS·m-1 than in those exposed to EC 1.0 dS·m-1 under elevated CO2, regardless of the phalaenopsis cultivar. Responses to CO2 and EC in the second flower spike length varied among phalaenopsis cultivars during 0 to 18 WOT; however, maximum second spike length was obtained with EC 2.0 dS·m-1 under elevated CO2 at 21 WOT in ‘Jupiter’. More visible flower buds and lateral branches were observed in plants exposed to EC 2.0 dS·m-1 under elevated CO2. The net CO2 assimilation rate showed significance with CO2 treatment, regardless of phalaenopsis cultivar. The most flowers were produced in the plants exposed to EC 2.0 dS·m-1 under ambient CO2 in both phalaenopsis cultivars, but water use efficiency, as well as potential yield, were the highest in plants exposed to EC 2.0 dS·m-1 under elevated CO2. We conclude that ≈ 650 µmol·mol-1 CO2 increased the flowering quality of phalaenopsis and recommend adjusting the nutrient concentration with an EC of 2.0 dS·m-1. - COLLAPSE
    October 2020
  • Research Article

    Positive Correlation between Color and Scent in Rose Petals with Floral Bud Development
    Je Yeon Yeon and Wan Soon Kim
    We analyzed the changes in the floral pigments and scent compounds of rose flowers during floral bud development to determine the color-scent ... + READ MORE
    We analyzed the changes in the floral pigments and scent compounds of rose flowers during floral bud development to determine the color-scent association during synthesis. The two distinct petal-colored cultivars ‘Penny Lane’ (yellow, carotenoid type) and ‘Vital’ (red, flavonoid type) were used in this study. Floral buds were divided into five developmental stages, S1 to S5. As the floral buds developed, the petals of ‘Penny Lane’ or ‘Vital’ turned brilliant yellow or red, with increased b* and a* values, respectively. In ‘Penny Lane’, the α-carotene content did not change through the stages, but the β-carotene level was 4 times higher at S4 than at S1 and then decreased again at S5. ‘Vital’ had little cyanin at S1, but it gradually increased by 20 times until S4 and then decreased 35% at S5. The changes in most of the scent compounds in ‘Penny Lane’ and ‘Vital’ throughout floral bud development were similar to those in the pigments. In both ‘Penny Lane’ and ‘Vital’, 2-phenylethanol, 3,5-dimethoxytoluene, and methyl eugenol increased until S4 and then decreased at S5. However, the amount of geraniol in ‘Penny Lane’ showed no content change from S1 to S4, remaining at 1.1 to 1.9 μg·g-1 FW, but it was absent at S5. Changes in the content of pigments and scent compounds occurred simultaneously with flower development, showing similar rates of increase and decrease. The petals of both ‘Penny Lane’ and ‘Vital’ got progressively more brilliant in color and more strongly scented until S4 and then grew pale with a weakening scent at S5. - COLLAPSE
    October 2020
  • Research Article

    Polyphenol Content and Essential Oil Composition of Sweet Basil Cultured in a Plant Factory with Light-Emitting Diodes
    Tae-Eui Song, Joon-Kwan Moon, and Chang Hee Lee
    This study was conducted to determine the most suitable light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for enhancing the growth characteristics, polyphenolic compounds, and essential oils ... + READ MORE
    This study was conducted to determine the most suitable light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for enhancing the growth characteristics, polyphenolic compounds, and essential oils in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) cultured in a plant factory. There were four LED combinations using three colors [Blue (B):Red (R):White (W) ratio = 0:1:9, 0:1:12, 0:5:5, and 2:3:5). The environmental conditions in the plant factory were maintained at 22.5 ± 2.5°C and 80 ± 5% relative humidity. Sweet basil plants were grown in the plant factory at 3 weeks after sowing. The four combinations of LED light sources exerted a significant effect on total fresh weight (FW), shoot FW, and root FW but no effect on plant height and number of leaves. The B0:R5:W5 treatment resulted in the largest increases in both total FW and shoot FW. Both plant height and number of leaves did not change significantly with LED treatments but showed the best average growth using B0:R5:W5. The three major polyphenols were identified as rosmarinic acid, chicoric acid, and caffeic acid. Rosmarinic acid content accounted for the highest percentage of the polyphenols and was followed by chicoric and caffeic acids. The highest contents of rosmarinic and chicoric acids were achieved with B2:R3:W5, but no significant difference in caffeic acid was found among the four LED conditions. Furthermore, B2:R3:W5 resulted in the highest yield of essential oil extracted from 50 g freeze-dried leaves of sweet basil, followed by B0:R5:W5, B0:R1:R12, and B0:R1:W9. Methyl-cinnamate content accounted for the highest percentage of the essential oils, followed by linalool, estragole, and eugenol, regardless of the LEDs. In conclusion, the B2:R3:W5 light treatment was the most suitable one for increasing polyphenols and the yield of essential oils in sweet basil. - COLLAPSE
    October 2020
  • Research Article

    Soil Water Flow Patterns due to Distance of Two Emitters of Surface Drip Irrigation for Horticultural Crops
    Soon Hong Kwon, Dong Hyun Kim, Jong Soon Kim, Ki Yeol Jung, Sang Hun Lee, and Joon Kook Kwon
    Surface drip irrigation is one of the most efficient systems for irrigating vegetables. The patterns of soil water distribution formed under the ... + READ MORE
    Surface drip irrigation is one of the most efficient systems for irrigating vegetables. The patterns of soil water distribution formed under the emitter are important for designing an optimal drip irrigation system. This study aims to evaluate the soil water patterns between two emitters using field experiments and numerical simulations. Field experiments were conducted using two emitters with different lateral spacings (20, 40, and 60 cm). Frequency domain reflectometry (FDR) sensors were used to measure the soil water content. HYDRUS-2D software was used to simulate water infiltration in the field experiments. At a short lateral spacing (20 cm), the water content started to increase at 30 min and saturated at 200 min. These values became significantly larger as the lateral spacing increased—300 min and saturated at 700 min at 40 cm and 900 min and longer than 22 hours at 60 cm, respectively. The simulated water contents were in satisfactory agreement with the experimental values (R2 = 0.97, RMSE = 0.009 cm3 cm-3, E (coefficient of efficiency) = 0.959). These results provide valuable information that can be used to design an efficient surface drip irrigation system for vegetables, thereby improving crop productivity and quality. - COLLAPSE
    October 2020
  • Research Article

    Growth and Bioactive Compounds of Lettuce as Affected by Light Intensity and Photoperiod in a Plant Factory Using External Electrode Fluorescent Lamps
    Ji Yoon Cho, Kil Sun Yoo, Jiseon Kim, Byung Jin Choi, and Wook Oh
    External electrode fluorescent lamps (EEFLs) are a new, efficient light source that can be used in plant factories. We examined the effects ... + READ MORE
    External electrode fluorescent lamps (EEFLs) are a new, efficient light source that can be used in plant factories. We examined the effects of light intensity and photoperiod combinations on growth, total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, and light use efficiency of lettuce (Lactuca sativa ‘Cheongchima’) in a plant factory employing EEFLs. Two-week-old seedlings were grown for 3 weeks at a photosynthetic photon flux density of 150 (150P) or 200 (200P) μmol∙m-2∙s-1 under 12, 16, 20, or 24 h photoperiods. The air temperature was maintained at 20 ± 2°C and Yamazaki nutrient solution was supplied using a deep flow technique. Fresh shoot and root weights increased as photoperiod was extended, becoming greatest under the 150P/24 h condition. The shoot/root ratio was lowest at the 24 h photoperiod under 150P and 200P conditions. Leaf length decreased at longer photoperiods, but leaf width and number was increased; therefore, leaf shape became broader under longer photoperiods. Leaf area increased at the 150P/20 h condition but decreased at the 200P/24 h condition. Specific leaf weight (thickness) increased significantly as photoperiod was extended irrespective of light intensity and became greater under 200P than 150P. Total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity increased continuously with increasing photoperiods under 150P; however, in the 200P treatment, both increased up to 20 h, then decreased under the 24 h photoperiod. Light use efficiency was generally higher under 150P, but became similar at either light intensity under the 24 h period. Considering the growth rate, leaf size, antioxidant capacity, and cropping cycle, the 150P/20 h condition was deemed to be the most efficient and economical for growth of ‘Cheongchima’ lettuce in a plant factory system. - COLLAPSE
    October 2020
  • Research Article

    Effects of 1-Methylcyclopropene Treatments on Fruit Quality Attributes and Cell Wall Metabolism in Cold Stored ‘Summer Prince’ and ‘Summer King’ Apples

    수확 후 1-Methylcyclopropene 처리방법이 ‘썸머프린스’와 ‘썸머킹’ 사과의 저온저장 중 과실 품질과 세포벽 대사에 미치는 영향

    Jingi Yoo, Seon-Hyang Kim, Jung-Geun Kwon, Young-Je Cho, and In-Kyu Kang

    유진기, 김선향, 권중근, 조영제, 강인규

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different concentrations (0.5 and 1 µL·L-1) and application times (0 ...

    본 연구는 수확 후 1-MCP(SmartFreshTM)를 0.5µL·L-1과 1µL·L-1의 농도로 각각 1회 및 2회 ...

    + READ MORE
    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different concentrations (0.5 and 1 µL·L-1) and application times (0.5, 1, 0.5+0.5 and 1+1 µL·L-1) of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP, SmartFreshTM) treatment on post-harvest quality and cell wall metabolism of ‘Summer Prince’ and ‘Summer King’ apple fruit during cold storage. Compared with control fruit, 1-MCP treatments maintained higher flesh firmness and titratable acidity in both apple cultivars. In contrast, the soluble solids content did not show differences in all treatments. The internal ethylene concentration was higher in control fruit, but fruit with 1-MCP treatments expressed lower ethylene concentration. Weight loss in ‘Summer Prince’ fruit treated with 1-MCP was lower than in control fruit during storage. The starch index did not show differences in all treatments; on the other hand, greasiness or other storage disorders were not detected during storage. Both cultivars showed higher contents of total sugar and uronic acid in both 1-MCP treatments than the control. ‘Summer Prince’ apple had increased cell wall degrading enzyme activity of β-Gal, α-Gal, β-Glc, α-Man, and α-Ara enzymes after 4 months of storage in control fruit. Likewise, ‘Summer King’ apple had increased activity of β-Gal, β-Glc, β-Xyl, and α-Ara enzymes after 2 months of storage in the control fruit. Both cultivars showed lower cell wall degrading enzyme activities in 1-MCP treatments than in the control. In conclusion, 1-MCP treatment of ‘Summer Prince’ and ‘Summer King’ apple fruit was effective in maintaining quality by inhibiting internal ethylene and cell wall metabolism. However, the different concentrations and repeated applications of 1-MCP treatment were not different in this study. Therefore, it was suggested that 0.5 µL·L-1 1-MCP treatment could be considered an economically effective concentration for this study.


    본 연구는 수확 후 1-MCP(SmartFreshTM)를 0.5µL·L-1과 1µL·L-1의 농도로 각각 1회 및 2회 처리하였을 때 저온저장 중 ‘썸머프린스’와 ‘썸머킹’ 사과의 과실 품질과 세포벽 대사에 미치는 영향을 구명하고자 실시하였다. 저온저장 중 과실 품질 변화를 보면, 두 품종 모두 무처리구와 비교하여 1-MCP 처리구의 과실들이 경도와 산 함량이 높게 유지되었으며, 가용성 고형물 함량은 처리 간 차이를 보이지 않았다. IEC는 무처리구에 비하여 1-MCP를 처리하였을 때 낮은 내생 에틸렌 발생량을 보였고, 처리 농도 및 횟수에 따른 차이는 없었다. 감모율은 ‘썸머프린스’ 사과의 경우 1-MCP 처리구들이 무처리구와 비교하여 낮았으며, ‘썸머킹’ 사과는 저장기간 동안 처리 간 차이를 보이지 않았다. 전분지수는 처리 간 차이를 보이지 않았으며, 왁스는 두 품종 모두 저장기간 동안 관찰되지 않았다. 저온저장 동안 세포벽 중층의 구성성분인 total sugar와 uronic acid 함량은 두 품종 모두 1-MCP 처리구들에서 무처리구와 비교하여 높게 유지되었다. 세포벽분해효소 활성을 보면 ‘썸머프린스’ 사과에서 무처리구는 저장 4개월 후에 β-Gal, α-Gal, β-Glc, α-Man, 및 α-Ara 효소들의 활성이 증가하였고, ‘썸머킹’ 사과의 무처리구는 저장 2개월 후 β-Gal, β-Glc, β-Xyl 및 α-Ara 효소들의 활성이 증가하였으며, 두 품종 모두 1-MCP 처리구들에서 세포벽분해효소들의 활성이 현저히 낮았다. 따라서 본 연구 결과 ‘썸머프린스’와 ‘썸머킹’ 사과에 1-MCP를 처리하는 것이 에틸렌 발생량 및 세포벽 대사 변화를 억제시켜 저장 중 과실 품질 유지에 효과적이었으며, 1-MCP 처리 농도 및 횟수에 따른 차이는 관찰되지 않아 0.5µL·L-1를 1회 처리하는 것이 경제적으로 유용하게 적용될 수 있는 방안이라고 판단되었다.

    - COLLAPSE
    October 2020
  • Research Article

    Development of a Cut Rose Longevity Prediction Model Using Thermography and Machine Learning
    So Young Choi and Ae Kyung Lee
    To predict the longevity of cut roses (Rosa hybrida L.), we used thermal image analysis on ‘3D’, ‘Kensington Garden’, and ‘Hera’ rose ... + READ MORE
    To predict the longevity of cut roses (Rosa hybrida L.), we used thermal image analysis on ‘3D’, ‘Kensington Garden’, and ‘Hera’ rose cultivars. At blooming stage, the temperatures of leaves and petals were similar to or slightly lower than the air temperature. When the temperature of leaves and petals increased by 2°C compared to the air temperature, no symptoms such as senescence were visible in the leaves and petals. However, three days after the temperature increase, significant visual senescence was observed and the temperature of leaves and petals decreased back to that of the air temperature. Based on this data, we identified three different stages of cut roses: (1) the blooming stage, (2) the last stage with no visual senescence, and (3) the stage with significant visual senescence. To embody a longevity prediction model for cut roses, the temperature difference between the leaf of ‘Hera’ and the air were chosen for the practice data for the model. After the machine learning process, a model with 100% accuracy was obtained. According to the model, when the temperature of a cut rose leaf is lower than the surrounding air, it is undergoing its blooming stage, while when it is higher it is undergoing the senescence stage. Using logistic regression with machine learning, a value of 1 indicates the senescence stage and a value of 0 indicates the blooming stage. This study suggests that current smart farming techniques used for cut roses are first-generation level, which means there are limitations in environmental control when using a remote control system and partially automatic system. To upgrade this process and overcome these limitations, an optimal model to predict the longevity of a cut rose is needed. - COLLAPSE
    October 2020
  • Research Article

    Identification and Purity Test of Melon Cultivars and F1 Hybrids Using Fluidigm-based SNP Markers
    D.S. Kishor, Yoonji Noh, Woon-Ho Song, Gung Pyo Lee, Jin-Kee Jung, Eun-Jo Shim, and Sang-Min Chung
    In melon (Cucumis melo L.), the grow-out test (GOT) has been traditionally used as a genetic purity test. However, this method is ... + READ MORE
    In melon (Cucumis melo L.), the grow-out test (GOT) has been traditionally used as a genetic purity test. However, this method is time-consuming, space-demanding, and associated with ambiguous classification of the genotypes. Molecular markers have proved to be an efficient tool in genotyping analyses. In the present study, a total of 96 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers differentiated 85 melon F1 hybrid plants from their parental lines and six other PT melon breeding lines via high-throughput Fluidigm genotyping. Of these, 39 SNP markers showed polymorphism between the parents. Additionally, SNP analysis and population structure analysis showed that several F1 hybrid plants were associated with outcrossing during the breeding program. Unweighted pair group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA) analysis revealed that most of the contaminated plants were closely sub-grouped with the 7_PT1 breeding line, suggesting possible outcrossing with 7_PT1. By combining with simple DNA extraction, the Fluidigm-based SNP marker analysis proved to be a simple and effective approach for the genetic purity analysis of F1 hybrids and melon cultivars. - COLLAPSE
    October 2020
  • Research Article

    Phenotypic Characteristics and Karyotype Analysis of Hibiscus sabdariffa var. sabdariffa by Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (FISH)
    Deepo Deen Mohammad, Islam MD Mazharul, Tapce Cherry Ann, Hong-Yul Kim, and Ki-Byung Lim
    The aim of this research was to ascertain the chromosome number, karyomorphology, distribution of 5S and 18S rDNA loci, individual chromosome length ... + READ MORE
    The aim of this research was to ascertain the chromosome number, karyomorphology, distribution of 5S and 18S rDNA loci, individual chromosome length, total chromosome length, DNA content, genome sizes, and phenotypic characteristics of H. sabdariffa var. sabdariffa. The chromosome number and detailed karyotype were analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using 5S and 18S rDNA probes. H. sabdariffa var. sabdariffa was tetraploid, and the chromosome number of somatic cells was 72 (2n = 4x = 72). According to FISH analysis, four 5S rDNA loci and ten 18S rDNA loci were detected. The lengths of the somatic chromosomes ranged from 3.53 to 6.88 μm, with a total chromosome length of 97.95 μm, where the total length of short arms and long arms were 37.16 and 60.79 μm respectively. The somatic cells of this species had twelve pairs of metacentric (m) and six pairs of submetacentric (sm) chromosomes. The karyotype formula was K = (2n) = 4x = 72 = 48m + 24sm. In this experiment, DNA content and genome sizes of H. sabdariffa var. sabdariffa were estimated by flow cytometry. 2C-DNA content and 2C genome size were 4.29 pg and 3338.8 Mbp, respectively. The leaf shape, leaf apex, and leaf margin were ovate, acute, and palmatipartite, respectively. The flower colour was purple and single in type. In addition, the diameter of the flower was 7.2 cm and the length of the flower eye was 1.87 cm. These results will contribute to further breeding and cytogenetic studies of H. sabdariffa var. sabdariffa. - COLLAPSE
    October 2020
  • Research Article

    The Fusion Transcript of Phytoene Synthase 1 Controls Yellow Fruit in Tomato
    Eun Sol Kang and Je Min Lee
    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit color is an important aspect of quality in terms of appearance and nutrient content. Carotenoids, chlorophyll, and flavonoids ... + READ MORE
    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit color is an important aspect of quality in terms of appearance and nutrient content. Carotenoids, chlorophyll, and flavonoids are the main components responsible for tomato fruit color. Phytoene synthase (PSY) is the key regulatory enzyme involved in the first committed step of carotenoid biosynthesis. Here, we found that the yellow fruit of S. lycopersicum ‘YF2359’, which lacks carotenoids, was regulated by a single recessive gene and cosegregated with PSY1 in the F2 population. Two different PSY1 transcripts, including the wild-type and mutant (fusion-type), were discovered in YF2359. The mutant was generated by the fusion of exons from two different DNA strands, namely, PSY1 and the antisense strand of CoA ligase, by trans-splicing. This yellow flesh phenotype, which was caused by a mutation of PSY1 and was undetected in S. lycopersicum ‘LA4044’, was predicted to nullify PSY because of amino acid substitutions in the conserved trans-isoprenyl diphosphate synthase domain. Additionally, the trans-splicing of PSY1 reduced wild-type PSY1 expression, suggesting that the metabolic flux in the carotenoid pathway was suppressed in the presence of this mutation. Carotenoid biosynthetic genes were expressed significantly less in ‘YF2359’ than in the red-fruited wild-type tomato ‘M82’. Information on this unusual mutation in PSY1 will improve the understanding of genetic variations in plants and enable novel strategies for improving fruit quality. - COLLAPSE
    October 2020
  • Research Article

    QTL Mapping and molecular markers of Powdery Mildew Resistance in Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata)

    애호박(C. moschata)에서 흰가루병 저항성에 대한 QTL 분석 및 연관 분자표지 개발

    Beom-Seok Park, Siyoung Jang, Yeisoo Yu, Gyung Ja Choi, Byoung-Cheorl Kang, and SangKi Seo

    박범석, 장시영, 유의수, 최경자, 강병철, 서상기

    Cucurbita moschata, an economically and nutritionally important vegetable in Korea, is seriously damaged in fruit quality and productivity by powdery mildew fungus ...

    이 연구에서는 우리나라의 중요 박과 작물인 애호박(동양계 호박, Cucurbita moschata)의 재배와 생산에 큰 피해를 주는 흰가루병(Podosphaera xanthii)의 저항성 ...

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    Cucurbita moschata, an economically and nutritionally important vegetable in Korea, is seriously damaged in fruit quality and productivity by powdery mildew fungus (Podosphaera xanthii). To understand genetic bases of the powdery mildew disease resistance, an F2 population was developed from a cross between TG201 (C. moschata, susceptible, female parent) and TG10 (resistant, male parent) heirloom from Hongikbio Inc. Randomly selected 204 F2 individuals were assayed against powdery mildew pathogen, and construction of genetic map and QTL analysis were conducted using SNPs derived from genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) method. The single major QTL was located in 6.9 ‑ 7.3 Mb region of TG10 chromosome 3. Within the 400 kb region, we investigated DNA insertion and deletion (indel) variations between TG201 and TG10 genome, and successfully designed seven sets of indel PCR markers. The functional validity of the powdery mildew resistance markers was confirmed with F2 individuals, breeding lines, and commercial varieties. From genomic sequence comparison on the basis of the breeding history, we also could clarify that the powdery mildew resistance region was introduced from C. okeechobeensis subsp. martinezii to C. moschata. Moreover, whole genome assemblies of two heirloom parents and genome-wide SNP/indel information were produced and are expected to be utilized as a genome resource for study of genus Cucurbita. The results and information of this study will be useful for genetics researches and breeding practices of C. moschata.


    이 연구에서는 우리나라의 중요 박과 작물인 애호박(동양계 호박, Cucurbita moschata)의 재배와 생산에 큰 피해를 주는 흰가루병(Podosphaera xanthii)의 저항성 유전자좌를 연구하였다. 홍익바이오(주)의 애호박 육종 소재 중에서 흰가루병 감수성 계통(TG201, ♀)과 저항성 계통(TG10, ♂)을 선정하고, 교배를 통하여 F2 집단을 만들었다. 그 중에 204개체를 대상으로 흰가루병 검정, GBS(genotyping-by-sequencing) 분석, SNP 유전지도 작성, QTL 분석을 수행하였다. 흰가루병 저항성 유전자좌는 TG10의 염색체 3번의 6.9 ‑ 7.3Mb 부분에 매핑되었다. 그리고 양친 유전체의 이 400kb 영역 내의 DNA 삽입/결실(indel)을 조사하고 7세트의 PCR 분자표지를 제작하였으며 F2 개체, 육종 소재 및 시판 품종을 대상으로 그 유효성을 검증하였다. 또한 실험에 사용된 애호박 양친의 유전체 염기서열 정보를 생산하고 해독하여 단일염기다형성(SNP) 분석을 수행하였다. 흰가루병 저항성 애호박 품종 육성 가계에 근거한 비교유전체 분석을 통하여 TG10이 갖고 있는 흰가루병 저항성 유전자좌 영역은 C. okeechobeensis subsp. martinezii로부터 이입된 염색체 토막의 일부임을 밝혔다. 본 연구에서 생산된 애호박 유전체 정보와 SNP 변이 데이터, 흰가루병 저항성 유전자좌 정보와 indel PCR 분자표지는 박과 식물의 연구와 개발에 유용하게 이용될 것으로 기대된다.

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    October 2020
  • Research Article

    Analysis of Soil Nutrient Balance and Enzymatic Activity and Growth Characteristics of Red Pepper under Protected Cultivation Using Organic Liquid Fertilizer Based on Condensed Molasses Soluble

    당밀 농축 용액 기반 유기성 액비 사용에 따른 시설재배 고추의 생육 특성, 토양 양분 균형 및 효소 활성도 분석

    Pyoung Ho Yi, Dae Ho Jung, Gopal Selvakumar, Seong Eun Lee, Seung Gab Han, and In-Bog Lee

    이평호, 정대호, 고팔 셀바쿠마르, 이성은, 한승갑, 이인복

    Extensive use of chemical fertilizers to increase yields of crops grown in rain-sheltered houses may impair the physicochemical and biological properties of ...

    시설 재배 작물의 생산량을 증대시키고자 화학 비료를 투입하는 경우 토양의 물리화학적 특성과 생물학적 특성이 손상될 수 있다. 화학 비료의 문제를 완화시킬 수 ...

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    Extensive use of chemical fertilizers to increase yields of crops grown in rain-sheltered houses may impair the physicochemical and biological properties of the soil. Organic liquid fertilizer based on vinasse produced by sugarcane fermentation is increasingly being used as an alternative to chemical fertilizers. The objectives of this study were to analyze the growth characteristics, yields, and nutrient utilization efficiency and measure the effect of soil microbial enzymatic activity when using organic liquid fertilizer based on condensed molasses soluble with red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) under protected cultivation. Four different fertilizer treatments were applied: no fertilizer (CON), chemical fertilizer (CF), chemical liquid fertilizer (CL), and organic liquid fertilizer (OL). Soil and plant nutrient contents, plant nutrient use efficiency, and soil enzyme activity were analyzed in each treatment. The fresh and dry weights of red peppers treated with organic liquid fertilizer increased, and fruit dry weight was similar between CF and OL. The P and K use efficiency of red peppers treated with organic liquid fertilizer increased, and the organic matter and available P2O5, K, and Ca contents of soil in organic liquid fertilizer treatment increased compared to chemical fertilizer treatment. In addition, the urease and β-glucosidase activity in organic liquid fertilizer treatment increased significantly, which may stimulate nitrogen and carbon circulation in soil. In this study, it is shown that the use of organic liquid fertilizer based on vinasse of soluble condensed molasses improves red pepper production similar to chemical fertilizers in addition to improving the soil chemical properties and microbial activity.


    시설 재배 작물의 생산량을 증대시키고자 화학 비료를 투입하는 경우 토양의 물리화학적 특성과 생물학적 특성이 손상될 수 있다. 화학 비료의 문제를 완화시킬 수 있는 대안으로 발효 찌꺼기를 기반으로 하는 유기성 액비의 활용이 늘어나고 있다. 본 연구에서는 비종별 처리에 따른 시설 재배 고추의 생육 특성과 생산량을 조사하고, 양분 이용 효율을 분석하며, 토양의 화학성과 미생물 활성도 변화를 측정하여 화학 비료와 무기성 및 유기성 액비의 효과에 대해 비교하고 분석하고자 하였다. 네 가지 비종별 처리구는 무비구(CON)와 화학 비료 처리구(CF), 무기성 액비 처리구(CL), 유기성 액비 처리구(OL)로 구성되었다. 토양과 식물체의 양분 함량과 식물체의 양분 이용 효율, 토양의 미생물 효소 활성도를 분석하였다. 유기성 액비를 처리한 고추의 전체 생체중과 건물중이 증가하였으며, 과실 건물중은 화학 비료 처리구와 유사한 수준으로 나타났다. 유기성 액비를 처리한 고추의 인과 칼륨의 이용 효율이 증가하였으며, 화학 비료에 비해 토양의 유기물 함량과 가용성 인산, 칼륨과 칼슘 함량 등이 증가하였다. 또한 유기성 액비 처리구에서 urease와 β-glucosidase의 활성도가 증가하여 토양의 유기 질소와 탄소 순환을 촉진시켰다. 본 연구를 통해 발효 찌꺼기를 기반으로 하는 유기성 액비 처리는 시설 재배 고추의 생산량을 화학 비료와 유사한 수준을 보장하며, 토양의 화학성과 미생물상을 개선하는데 유용할 것으로 판단되었다.

    - COLLAPSE
    October 2020
  • Research Article

    Influences of Three Oidiodendron maius Isolates and Two Inorganic Nitrogen Sources on the Growth of Rhododendron kanehirae
    Lei-Chen Lin, Wan-Rou Lin, Yu-Chen Hsu, and Hung-Yu Pan
    Rhododendron kanehirae Wilson is an endemic species of Taiwan that is listed as extinct in the wild by the Red List of ... + READ MORE
    Rhododendron kanehirae Wilson is an endemic species of Taiwan that is listed as extinct in the wild by the Red List of Vascular Plants of Taiwan. R. kanehirae seedlings can form mycorrhizae with the ericoid mycobiont Oidiodendron maius. A completely randomized experimental design was conducted to investigate the effects of three different O. maius isolates (strains CBS110450, RhYM3, and RooDK1) as well as nitrate and ammonium (inorganic nitrogen) on the growth of R. kanehirae by evaluating height and shoot, root, and total fresh weight. Three isolates of O. maius showed different colony morphology and growth rate, which was further verified by molecular analysis. The results showed that application of ammonium fertilizer improved the height and shoot, root, and total fresh weight of all of the R. kanehirae seedlings. Among them, seedlings inoculated with RhYM3 had the highest fresh weights and heights. By applying an appropriate amount of nitrogen combined with RhYM3 inoculation, the rhizome of R. kanehirae grew well. The information provided here is crucial for the conservation of R. kanehirae, as this species is on the verge of extinction. - COLLAPSE
    October 2020
  • Cultivar and Germplasm Release

    Breeding of Lilium Asiatic ‘Bright Yellow LiA’ as a Seed Propagation Hybrid for Garden

    종자번식 일대잡종 정원용 아시아틱 나리 ‘Bright Yellow LiA’ 육성

    Cheon Young Song, Ja Young Moon, and Byoung Mo Park

    송천영, 문자영, 박병모

    There is a need to breed and distribute domestic varieties of Lilium Asiatic hybrids because most of the lily bulbs cultivated in ...

    우리나라에서 재배되고 있는 나리 구근의 대부분을 수입에 의존하고 있어 국내 품종을 개발하여 보급할 필요가 있다. 정원용 아시아틱 나리 유전자원 ‘Butter Pixie’, ‘Mona ...

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    There is a need to breed and distribute domestic varieties of Lilium Asiatic hybrids because most of the lily bulbs cultivated in Korea are imported from foreign countries. The Lilium Asiatic ‘Butter Pixie’, ‘Mona’ and ‘Tiny Bee’ varieties collected in 2000 had been self-pollinated from 2002 to 2014. In 2016, Lilium Asiatic ‘Bright Yellow LiA’ was developed as an F1 hybrid whose cultivar was generated by crossing ‘L2-17-4’ and ‘L2-32-5’. It was obtained by 6th generation self-fertilization of the combination ‘Mona’ x ‘Butter Pixie’ for the maternal line and 7th generation self-fertilization of ‘Tiny Bee’ for the paternal line. ‘Bright Yellow LiA’ was assessed for homogeneity using a regional adaptability test, and was shown to be preferred by consumers from 2016 to 2018. ‘Bright Yellow LiA’ flowers are yellow and bowl-shaped with a few brown spots. The number of flowers per plant was 4.8, which was relatively more flowers than other cultivars, and the flower diameter was small at 12.7cm. The flower inflorescence was racemose, while the attitude of the longitudinal axis was erect. The plant height was 39.2 cm with 32.9 leaves per plant and 7.5 cm in leaf length. ‘Bright Yellow LiA’ showed a high preference for gardens because it had a longer flowering period, smaller flower diameter, shorter plant height, and thicker stem than those of the control, ‘Tiny Bee’. Moreover, this cultivar has the advantage of being able to reproduce and propagate by seeds since the parents are a pure line.


    우리나라에서 재배되고 있는 나리 구근의 대부분을 수입에 의존하고 있어 국내 품종을 개발하여 보급할 필요가 있다. 정원용 아시아틱 나리 유전자원 ‘Butter Pixie’, ‘Mona’와 ‘Tiny Bee’를 2000년에 수집하여 2014년까지 모계(L2-17-4)는 ‘Mona’와 ‘Butter Pixie’의 교배 조합을 6차례 자가수정(S6)하여 선발하였고, 부계(L2-32-5)는 ‘Tiny Bee’를 7차례 자가수정(S7)하여 선발하였다. ‘Bright Yellow LiA’는 2016년부터 2018년까지 생육 및 개화의 균일도 및 노지재배를 통한 지역적응성을 검정하였고 소비자 선호도를 조사하였다. 정원용 아시아틱 나리 일대잡종 ‘Bright Yellow LiA’은 사발 모양의 노란색 홑꽃으로 반점이 적고 반점의 색은 갈색이다. 식물체당 개화수가 4.8개로 많은 편이었으며, 화경이 12.7cm로 작고 꽃차례 형태는 총상꽃차례로 개화 방향은 상향이었다. 초장, 엽수, 엽장, 엽폭은 각각 39.2cm, 32.9개, 7.5cm, 1.5cm였다. 일대 잡종 ‘Bright Yellow LiA’은 대조품종인 ‘Tiny Bee’보다 화경은 작으나 초장이 짧고 줄기가 강건하며 노지 재배가 가능하므로 정원용으로 선호도가 우수하였다. 또한 이 품종은 양친을 순계화하여 육성하였기 때문에 종자번식과 품종의 재현이 가능하다고 판단되었다.

    - COLLAPSE
    October 2020