- History of Nucleotide Sequencing Technologies: Advances in Exploring Nucleotide Sequences from Mendel to the 21st Century
- Yuna Kang, Chon-Sik Kang, and Changsoo Kim
- In the mid-2000s, sequencing technology evolved into second-generation sequencing methods that provided low-cost, high-efficiency, and high-throughput data, compared to the traditional first- ... + READ MORE
- In the mid-2000s, sequencing technology evolved into second-generation sequencing methods that provided low-cost, high-efficiency, and high-throughput data, compared to the traditional first- generation sequencing methods such as Sanger and Maxam-Gilbert technologies. The second-generation technology initiated a new era of genomics research due to a large amount of data generated by innovative pyrosequencing technology. Basically, the second-generation sequencing methods offer multiple depths of nucleotide sequences with short lengths. This is the reason why it is also called deep sequencing technology. Due to in-depth sequencing, it can be used for a variety of genetics research applications, such as genotyping and gene expression studies. However, second-generation sequencing generates short reads, which are not desirable for full genome assembly. As a result, some researchers started seeking ways to generate longer reads. Consequently, third-generation sequencing that can produce much longer sequences and supplement the shortcomings of previous technologies has been developed. In this article, we briefly review the principles and characteristics of each generation of sequencing technology as well as the latest trends. - COLLAPSE
- Concentration and Timing of Exogenous Foliar Spray of Benzyladenine and Ethephon Influence Crown Bud Formation in Three Hosta Taxa
- Sae Mi Yoon, Yoon Jin Kim, Sun Hee Ryu, Han Choi, Sang Yong Kim, and Seung Youn Lee
- This study was conducted to determine the effect of benzyladenine (BA) and ethephon application on crown bud formation in two Hosta taxa ... + READ MORE
- This study was conducted to determine the effect of benzyladenine (BA) and ethephon application on crown bud formation in two Hosta taxa native to Korea and one cultivar. Hosta yingeri, H. minor f. alba, and H. ‘White Edge’ were divided into uniform single-bud divisions from mother plants on April 8, 2017. BA and ethephon were applied individually as a foliar spray at either an early growth stage (May 29, 2017) 50 days after transplanting, or a late growth stage (September 1, 2017) 145 days after transplanting. BA was applied at concentrations of 500, 1,000, 2,000, or 3,000 mg·L-1, whereas ethephon was applied at concentrations of 50, 100, 500, or 1,000 mg·L-1. In the early growth-stage treatments, there were no significant differences in plant height and width in the three Hosta species. However, in H. yingeri, when 2,000 or 3,000 mg·L-1 BA was applied, the number of leaves was higher (15.4 and 14.5 on average, respectively) than in the untreated plants (9.7 on average). Likewise, there were no significant differences in plant height and width in H. yingeri and H. ‘White Edge’ at the late growth-stage treatments. BA treatments increased the number of leaves regardless of the concentration compared with untreated plants in H. yingeri and H. minor f. alba. In the case of H. ‘White Edge’, only 1,000 or 2,000 mg·L-1 BA increased the number of leaves compared to the untreated plants. The BA treatments had a greater influence on crown bud formation than did the ethephon treatments. When 1,000 or 3,000 mg·L-1 BA was applied at the late growth stage, crown bud formation of H. yingeri and H. minor f. alba was 4.8 - and 2.8-times higher than that in the untreated plants, respectively. In the case of H. ‘White Edge,’ the number of crown buds increased after BA application at both the early and late growth stages. - COLLAPSE
Effects of High-Temperature and Soil Moisture Conditions on the Physiological Response of Onion
고온과 다습조건이 양파의 생리반응에 미치는 영향
Hee Ju Lee, Sang Gyu Lee, Sung Kyeom Kim, Sewoong An, Jin Hyoung Lee, Hee Su Lee, Cheol Woo Kim, Young Seok Kwon, and Ji Won Han
이희주, 이상규, 김성겸, 안세웅, 이진형, 이희수, 김철우, 권영석, 한지원
- The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of a combination of high-temperature and excessive irrigation treatments on growth, physiological ...
양파의 고온과 다습조건이 생육, 생리반응 및 수량에 미치는 영향을 구명하고자 본 실험을 수행하였다. 본 실험은 하우스의 막혀 있는 부분에 설치된 환기팬을 이용하여 ...+ READ MORE
- The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of a combination of high-temperature and excessive irrigation treatments on growth, physiological response, and yield of onion (Allium cepa). These experiments were conducted in a typical plastic house (one side open and the other side installed ventilation fans) with a gradient air temperature (maximum different value of air temperature: 6°C). The excessive irrigation (EI) treatment commenced at 149 days after transplanting. Significant differences were found in the growth parameters in response to air temperature and soil moisture conditions. Under a combination of ambient (A) + 6°C and A + 3°C with optimal irrigation (OI) conditions, the plant height was 128.7 and 128.9 cm/plant, respectively, which was the highest among all the tested treatments. The number of leaves showed the greatest difference of 11.8 and 11.7/plant at A + 3°C and A + 6°C with OI and least difference of 8.6/plant in A-EI. The stem diameter and leaf width were higher under A + 3°C and A + 6°C with OI conditions than in the ambient temperature treatment. Bulb weight dramatically increased under the A + 6°C and A + 3°C temperature treatments. The marketable yields increased by 157% and 127% under A + 6°C-OI and A + 6°C-EI temperature treatments than in ambient temperature with OI. These results indicated that onion yields increased in response to 6°C or 3°C high-temperature treatments than under the ambient temperature treatment.
양파의 고온과 다습조건이 생육, 생리반응 및 수량에 미치는 영향을 구명하고자 본 실험을 수행하였다. 본 실험은 하우스의 막혀 있는 부분에 설치된 환기팬을 이용하여 시설 내부로 공기를 빨아들여 개방된 반대쪽 입구로 배출함으로써 입구와 안쪽의 온도차가 6°C로 조절되는 시설에서 수행하였다. 토양수분 다습처리(EI)는 정식후 149일부터 토양수분 함량이 40%가 되도록 처리하였다. 양파의 생육특성은 온도와 토양수분에 의해 유의성이 있었다. 초장은 외기 + 3°C(Ambient; A + 3°C), 외기 + 6°C(A + 6°C)의 적습(OI) 처리구가 각각 128.7cm와 128.9cm로 다른 처리구보다 컸다. 엽수는 A + 3°C-OI 처리와 A + 6°C-OI 처리구가 주당 11.8매와 11.7매로 가장 많았고, A-EI 처리구가 8.6매로 가장 적었다. 양파의 경경과 엽폭은 A + 3°C-OI 처리와 A + 6°C-OI 처리구가 외기처리구보다 증가하였다. 양파의 구중은 A + 3°C, A + 6°C 처리구에서 증가하였다. 상품수량은 A + 6°C-OI처리와 A + 3°C-OI 처리구가 외기-OI 대비 각각 157%, 127% 가 증가하였다. 따라서 양파는 외기보다 6°C 정도 고온이 되면 수량이 증가하는 것으로 나타났다. 생육 후기 과다한 토양 수분에 따라 생장이 억제되었다. 그리고 수량과 과실의 형태는 토양수분보다는 기온의 영향이 컸다. 외기온 처리구(대조구)에서 토양 수분이 과다한 처리구에서 수량이 감소하였으나, 고온 처리구(+ 3°C)에서는 과다한 토양 수분이 구중의 무게가 유의하게 컸다.
- Effects of High-Temperature and Soil Moisture Conditions on the Physiological Response of Onion
- Changes in Growth Characteristics and Functional Components of Lactuca indica L. ‘Sunhyang’ Baby Leaf Vegetable by Light Intensity and Cultivation Period
- Jae Kyung Kim, Ho Min Kang, Jong Kuk Na, and Ki Young Choi
- Indian lettuce (Lactuca indica L.) ‘Sunhyang’ is wild plant bred by crossing Indian lettuce and ‘Dragon’s tongue’. It has wider leaf ... + READ MORE
- Indian lettuce (Lactuca indica L.) ‘Sunhyang’ is wild plant bred by crossing Indian lettuce and ‘Dragon’s tongue’. It has wider leaf width and less bitterness than Indian lettuce. This study was conducted to determine the optimum light intensity for growth and functional components of Lactuca indica L. ‘Sunhyang’, considered as a new wild baby leaf vegetable throughout the year. Plants were cultivated in controlled environment at temperature of 24 - 25°C and relative humidity (RH) of 60 ± 5% from seedling to harvest. 16 days after sowing, plants were treated with four different light intensities of PPFD (photosynthetic photon flux density) 50, 100, 250 and 500 using white LED light for 18 days. Growth characteristics, leaf color, and functional components were investigated three times (6th, 12th, and 18th day) after PPFD treatment. At light intensity of PPFD 50, 100 and 250, it took 12 days after treatment (DAT) to reach optimum size to harvest (plant height 12 - 14 cm). Leaf width, leaf number, and leaf area increased more in PPFD 100 and 250 than PPFD 50. At PPFD 500, it took 18 DAT to reach appropriate size to harvest. Dry weight and dry mass ratio of shoot increased with increasing light intensity, whereas specific leaf area (SLA) decreased. Chlorophyll relative value (SPAD) and leaf color differed depending on light intensity. SPAD was the lowest in PPFD 50. Hunter a* value was the highest for PPFD 250 and 500 at 12DAT. The highest relative growth rate (RGR) was observed at 0 to 6DAT for PPFD 500, 6 to 12DAT for PPFD 50 and PPFD 250, and 12 to 18DAT for PPFD 250. Parameters for root growth of Indian lettuce were affected significantly by light and DAT. Total root length was longer in PPFD 250 and 500 than that in other treatment from 6DAT. Average root diameter and volume were the largest in PPFD 500. Anthocyanin contents, total phenolic contents, and free radical activity (DPPH) were increased with increasing light level. However, levels of functional components decreased at 18 DAT. These results suggest that Lactuca indica L. ‘Sunhyang’ can grow the best when it is kept at PPFD 250 at 12 DAT for optimal growth, leaf color, and functional components. - COLLAPSE
Growth, Antioxidant Concentrations and Activity in Sedum takesimense as Affected by Supplemental LED Irradiation with Light Quality
LED 광질에 따른 섬기린초의 생육과 항산화물질 함량 및 활성 분석
Sang Im Oh, Ja Hee Lee, and Ae Kyung Lee
오상임, 이자희, 이애경
- This study was conducted to investigate the effect of different qualities of LED irradiation on the growth of and antioxidant concentrations and ...
본 연구는 돌나물과 식물 중 섬기린초가 LED 광질 처리에 따라 생육과 항산화물질 함량 및 활성에 미치는 영향에 대하여 알아보고자 수행하였다. 섬기린초를 LED ...+ READ MORE
- This study was conducted to investigate the effect of different qualities of LED irradiation on the growth of and antioxidant concentrations and activity in Sedum takesimense. After blue LED treatment, leaf length and width increased, and there were more leaves per stem than under other treatments. The plants under RBW (red:blue:white = 1:1:1) LED treatment had significantly higher fresh and dry weights than those under other treatments. The concentrations of total flavonoids and total phenolics and DPPH (2,2 Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity of the plants increased after light treatment. The concentration of antioxidants (total flavonoids and total phenolics) and DPPH radical scavenging, ABTS [2, 2ʹ-Azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] radical scavenging were higher after blue LED treatment than after any other treatment. The concentration of total flavonoids was highly correlated with that of total phenolics (r = 0.821, p ≤ 0.05) and with DPPH radical scavenging (r = 0.505, p ≤ 0.05), ABTS radical scavenging (r = 0.767, p ≤ 0.01). The concentration of total phenolics was also strongly correlated with DPPH radical scavenging (r = 0.868, p ≤ 0.01) and ABTS radical scavenging (r = 0.862, p ≤ 0.01) activities. It is suggested that blue LED treatment affects the synthesis of antioxidants during growth in chamber. We thus conclude that these antioxidant compounds are a major factor in determining antioxidant activity. Therefore, it was determined that Sedum takesimense belonging to Crassulaceae can be grown using blue LED in growth chambers.
본 연구는 돌나물과 식물 중 섬기린초가 LED 광질 처리에 따라 생육과 항산화물질 함량 및 활성에 미치는 영향에 대하여 알아보고자 수행하였다. 섬기린초를 LED 광질에 따라 처리 한 후 생육 조사를 한 결과, blue LED 단색광 및 혼합광 처리 시 엽생장에 효과적이었으며, RBW LED 혼합광 처리 시 생체중과 건물중이 높은 것으로 조사되었다. 또한, LED 처리 시 총 플라보노이드 함량과 총 페놀 함량, DPPH radical 소거 활성은 처리 전보다 증가하는 경향을 보였다. 특히, blue LED 단색광 및 혼합광 처리가 다른 처리보다 총 플라보노이드와 총 페놀 함량이 높은 것으로 조사되었다. DPPH radical 및 ABTS radical 소거 활성을 통해 항산화 활성을 조사한 결과, 항산화물질 함량이 높았던 blue LED 처리가 활성이 높은 것으로 조사되었다. 이에 따라 blue LED 처리 후 섬기린초의 항산화물질 함량과 활성의 상관관계를 조사한 결과, 총 플라보노이드와 총 페놀은 서로 간의 상관관계가 높고(r = 0.821, p ≤ 0.05), DPPH radical 및 ABTS radical 소거 활성과도 상관관계를 가지는 것으로 조사되었다(r = 0.505, p ≤ 0.05; r = 0.767, p ≤ 0.01). 또한, 총 페놀과 DPPH radical 및 ABTS radical 소거 활성은 각각 r = 0.868, 0.862 (p ≤ 0.01)로 상관관계가 높은 것으로 나타났다. 따라서, blue LED 처리는 섬기린초의 엽생장에 효과적이며, 항산화물질 합성에 영향을 미치고 이로 인해 생성된 항산화물질은 항산화 활성의 주요 작용인자로 기여하는 것으로 판단된다. 또한, 위의 결과를 통해 챔버 내 섬기린초의 생육이 가능하며 blue LED 처리 시 생육과 기능성 물질 합성에 효과적인 것으로 판단된다.
- Growth, Antioxidant Concentrations and Activity in Sedum takesimense as Affected by Supplemental LED Irradiation with Light Quality
- Growth and Biochemical Responses of Ice Plant Irradiated by Various Visible Light Spectra in Plant Factories
- Ji-Won Lee, Ki-Ho Son, Jin-Hui Lee, Yun-Jung Kim, and Myung-Min Oh
- The goal of this study was to determine the effects of various visible light spectra on the growth and bioactive compounds of ... + READ MORE
- The goal of this study was to determine the effects of various visible light spectra on the growth and bioactive compounds of ice plant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L.) in a plant factory with artificial light. Three-week-old seedlings were transplanted into subirrigation systems in a plant factory (average of 23°C air temperature, 60% relative humidity, 170 µmol∙m-2∙s-1 photosynthetic photon flux density, 12 h photoperiod, and 1,000 µmol∙mol-1 CO2) equipped with fluorescent lamps (FL, control); monochromatic red (R, 654 nm), green (G, 518 nm), and blue (B, 455 nm) light- emitting diodes (LEDs); and various combinations of R and B (R:B = 6:4, 7:3, 8:2, 9:1), or RB with G (R:G:B = 5:1:4, 6:1:3, 7:1:2, 8:1:1, 9:1:0) LEDs. Shoot fresh weight was higher in the R8B2, R7B3, and R8G1B1 treatments, but did not significantly differ from that in the control. Root fresh weight was highest in the R8G1B1 treatment among all treatments. Leaf area showed a similar trend to shoot fresh weight. The specific leaf weight increased as the ratio of B LEDs increased under the RB and RGB treatments, except in the R8G1B1 treatment. Plants in the RGB treatments with 5 - 6% G light had a higher photosynthetic rate when compared with the RB treatments. The total phenolic content based on unit grams in plants irradiated with RB and RGB LEDs did not show a significant difference except in the R9G1B0 treatment. Antioxidant capacity per unit dry weight tended to increase as the ratio of B LEDs increased in the RB treatments. Regarding total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity per plant, the highest values were recorded in treatments R8B2, R7B3, and R8G1B1, which was similar to the shoot growth results. These results indicate that LEDs with R8B2, R7B3, and R8G1B1 ratios, as well as FL, are suitable visible lighting sources for producing high-value ice plants in plant factories. - COLLAPSE
- Effects of Preharvest and Postharvest 1-Methylcyclopropene Treatments on Fruit Quality Attributes and Cell Wall Metabolism during Short-term Cold Storage in ‘HetsalHaunkeybee’ Peaches
- Jingi Yoo, Seulgi Ryu, Chulho Park, Nay Myo Win, Hyong Woo Choi, Jinwook Lee, Hae Keun Yun, Hee-Young Jung, Myoung-Gun Choung, Young-Je Cho, and In-Kyu Kang
- We evaluated the effects of preharvest 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; HarvistaTM) or postharvest 1-MCP (SmartFreshTM) treatments on the physiological and biochemical responses of fruit ... + READ MORE
- We evaluated the effects of preharvest 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; HarvistaTM) or postharvest 1-MCP (SmartFreshTM) treatments on the physiological and biochemical responses of fruit quality attributes and enzymatic activities of cell wall hydrolases of ‘HetsalHaunkeybee’ peaches. The fruit were treated with either HarvistaTM via spraying 1 week before the harvest (preharvest treatment), or SmartFreshTM via fumigation immediately after the harvest (postharvest treatment). Then, fruits were stored at 10°C for up to 12 days. Flesh firmness of the fruit was significantly enhanced by postharvest treatment with SmartFreshTM, but not by the preharvest treatment with HarvistaTM. Neither HarvistaTM nor SmartFreshTM altered the soluble solids content, titratable acidity, or the peel color variables during cold storage. However, the SmartFreshTM treatment significantly reduced the enzymatic activities of α-galactosidase, β-galactosidase, β-glucosidase, β-arabinosidase, β- xylosidase, and α-mannosidase during cold storage, compared to the untreated fruit and the HarvistaTM-treated fruit. Overall, the results suggest that postharvest SmartFreshTM treatment should be an effective method for peach fruit storage, and it enhances fruit quality by reducing the enzymatic activities related to cell wall hydrolysis and softening. - COLLAPSE
- Storage Temperature Influences Fruit Ripening and Changes in Organic Acids of Kiwifruit Treated with Exogenous Ethylene
- Gyeong Hwan Cha, H. M. Prathibhani C. Kumarihami, Hong Lim Kim, Yong Bum Kwack, and Jin Gook Kim
- The influence of storage temperature on ripening and physiochemical changes in kiwifruit (Actinidia sp.) cultivars ‘Garmrok’, ‘Hayward’, ‘Goldone’, and ‘Jecy Gold’ treated ... + READ MORE
- The influence of storage temperature on ripening and physiochemical changes in kiwifruit (Actinidia sp.) cultivars ‘Garmrok’, ‘Hayward’, ‘Goldone’, and ‘Jecy Gold’ treated with exogenous ethylene was investigated to optimize the storage temperature of kiwifruit. Kiwifruit were stored at 5, 10, and 18ºC for 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 days and evaluated for soluble solids content (SSC), titratable acidity (TA), SSC/TA ratio, firmness, and organic acids content. The SSC, SSC/TA ratio, and malic acid content increased, while the kiwifruit firmness, TA, and citric acid content decreased with increasing storage temperature and time. Kiwifruit ripening and quality were least affected when stored at 5°C, but suffered rapid degradation at 18°C. Temperature management during kiwifruit storage and ripening directly correlates with the qualitative attributes and influences consumers’ acceptability of “ready to eat” kiwifruit. - COLLAPSE
- Morphological Characteristics and FISH Analysis of Hibiscus F1 Hybrids and Parental Lines
- Young Kwan Jo, Islam MD Mazharul, Chang-Kil Kim, Hong-Yul Kim, and Ki-Byung Lim
- In this study, the characteristics of ‘Tohagolred’, ‘Daewangchun’ generated by a reciprocal cross between Hibiscus sinosyriacus ‘Seobong’ and H. syriacus ‘Samchully’, and ... + READ MORE
- In this study, the characteristics of ‘Tohagolred’, ‘Daewangchun’ generated by a reciprocal cross between Hibiscus sinosyriacus ‘Seobong’ and H. syriacus ‘Samchully’, and the corresponding parental lines were investigated and DNA content was measured by flow cytometry. FISH detection of 5S and 45S rDNA was conducted to analyze the parental and progeny karyotypes. The leaf margin was serrate for ‘Samchully’ and crenate for ‘Seobong’. The leaf margin of ‘Daewangchun’ was crenate, the avarage leaf length was 8.2 cm, and the average leaf width was 5.4 cm. The leaf margin of ‘Tohagolred’ was crenate, the average leaf length was 7.2 cm, and the average leaf width was 5.7 cm. The diameter of the ‘Daewangchun’ flower was 13.8 cm, which was 2 cm larger than the parents, and the red eye radius was 2.1 cm, which was approximately 1 cm larger than that of the parents. ‘Daewangchun’ appeared pink in color, similar to ‘Samchully.’ The flower diameter of ‘Tohagolred’ was 12.6 cm, which was 1 cm larger than that of the parents; the red eye length radius was 1.1 cm and approximately 1 cm smaller than that of the parents. ‘Tohagolred’ also appeared pink in color, similar to ‘Samchully.’ The DNA content was 1928.77 Mbp/1C (1.97 pg/1C) for ‘Seobong’ and 2820.34 Mbp/1C (2.88 pg/1C) for ‘Samchully’. Moreover, the DNA content of ‘Daewangchun’ and ‘Tohagolred’ was 1975.88 Mbp/1C (2.88 pg/1C) and 1914.70 Mbp/1C (1.97 pg/1C), respectively. DAPI staining showed that ‘Seobong’ was 2n = 80 and ‘Samchully’ was 2n = 126 as parents. However, Hibiscus F1 cultivars ‘Daewangchun’ and ‘Tohagolred’ were 2n = 82. FISH analysis revealed that ‘Seobong’ had six 45S rDNA signals and two 5S rDNA signals. In contrast, ‘Samchully’ had six 45S rDNA signals and three 5S rDNA signals. Both ‘Daewangchun’ and ‘Tohagolred’ had seven 45S rDNA signals and two 5S rDNA signals. These results provide a foundation for genetic analysis and cultivation of new crops of Hibiscus spp. - COLLAPSE
- High Frequency in vitro Regeneration of Chinese cabbage (cv. Kenshin) from Hypocotyl and Cotyledon Explants
- Ganeshan Sivanandhan, Sheng Bean Choi, Moon Jiae, Su Ryun Choi, Sang Gyu Kim, Young Doo Park, and Yong Pyo Lim
- An easy and efficient in vitro regeneration protocol was established for Chinese cabbage, cv. Kenshin (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis), using hypocotyl and ... + READ MORE
- An easy and efficient in vitro regeneration protocol was established for Chinese cabbage, cv. Kenshin (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis), using hypocotyl and cotyledon explants. The individual and combined effects of different plant growth regulators were examined in detail at various stages of regeneration through the direct regeneration method. Maximum shoot induction (3.41 shoots/ hypocotyl explant) occurred on Murashige and Skoog medium containing benzyladenine (4 mg·L-1), naphthalene acetic acid (1 mg·L-1), and silver nitrate (4 mg·L-1). These in vitro-regenerated shoots elongated on the same medium and produced abundant roots on half-strength MS medium. Rooted plantlets were successfully hardened and acclimatized with a survival rate of 86%. This optimized method used for cv. Kenshin was studied on two more lines, CNU_11635 and rapid-cycling RCBr cv.R-o-18.Among them, cv. Kenshin was found to be the best responding cultivar with a higher shoot production response of 79%. This method can be applied to regenerate plants after gene transfer and genome editing. - COLLAPSE
Composition Characteristics of Flavonoids in Citrus Juice
감귤 과즙의 플라보노이드 조성 특성
Young Taek Yang, Ho Bang Kim, Sanghyun Lee, and Young Chul Park
양영택, 김호방, 이상현, 박영철
- Flavonoids in juice of 67 citrus genetic resources were analyzed using LC-MS/MS, in order to increase utilization of genetic resources as ...
기능성 및 육종 소재로써 감귤 유전자원의 활용 가치를 높이고자, LC-MS/MS를 이용하여 감귤 67개 유전자원의 과즙 중 플라보노이드 함량을 분석하였다. LC-MS/MS ...+ READ MORE
- Flavonoids in juice of 67 citrus genetic resources were analyzed using LC-MS/MS, in order to increase utilization of genetic resources as both breeding and functional materials. Analytical condition was established for ten kinds of flavonoid components known to exist in citrus fruits such as hesperidin by LC-MS/MS, and the analytical method was verified through specificity, linearity, and detection limit. In citrus juice at 80% coloring stage, content of hesperidin and narirutin were generally high, but in sour orange and grapefruit, naringin contents was higher than hesperidin. Total flavonoid content was high in ‘Hayaka’, ‘Sanguinelli’, ‘Grapefruit’, ‘Morita navel’, ‘Kinokuni’ and ‘Mihocore’. And ‘Dangyuja’, ‘Jigak’ and ‘Byungkuyl’ which are Jeju native citrus, has specifically high content of certain flavonoids. These resources could be used as not only sources of functional materials but also breeding materials.
기능성 및 육종 소재로써 감귤 유전자원의 활용 가치를 높이고자, LC-MS/MS를 이용하여 감귤 67개 유전자원의 과즙 중 플라보노이드 함량을 분석하였다. LC-MS/MS 분석을 위하여 hesperidin 등 감귤에 있다고 알려진 10 종의 플라보노이드 성분의 분석조건을 설정하였고, 특이성, 직선성, 검출한계 등 유효성 검증을 통하여 분석법을 정립하였다. 80% 착색기 감귤 과즙에는 일반적으로 hesperidin과 narirutin 성분 함량이 높았으나, 사우어오렌지와 자몽에서는 naringin 함량이 hesperidin 함량보다 높았다. 총 플라보노이드 함량은 ‘조향’, ‘상귀넬리’, ‘그레이프프루트’, ‘삼전네블’, ‘기주밀감’, ‘미호콜’에서 높게 나타났다. 또한 제주 재래귤인 ‘당유자’, ‘지각’, ‘병귤’ 등은 일부 플라보노이드 성분 함량이 특이적으로 높았다. 따라서 이들 자원들은 기능성 소재뿐만 아니라 육종 소재로 이용될 수 있을 것으로 판단된다.
- Composition Characteristics of Flavonoids in Citrus Juice
Cultivar and Germplasm Release
Breeding of Moon Cactus ‘Bulbit’ with Dark Red Color and Excellent Propagation
번식력이 우수한 진한 적색 비모란선인장 ‘Bulbit’ 품종 육성
Pil Man Park, Oh Keun Kwon, Pue Hee Park, Hye Ryun An, and Su Young Lee
박필만, 권오근, 박부희, 안혜련, 이수영
- The cultivar of moon cactus, ‘Bulbit’ with dark red color and many offsets, was bred by National Institute of Horticultural & Herbal Science ...
농가 선호도가 높은 진한 적색 비모란선인장 ‘Bulbit’ 품종은 진한 적색 ‘Gohong’ 품종을 모본으로, 진한 적색 ‘0708047’ 계통을 부본으로 하여 2011년에 교배하여 육성된 ...+ READ MORE
- The cultivar of moon cactus, ‘Bulbit’ with dark red color and many offsets, was bred by National Institute of Horticultural & Herbal Science (NIHHS) in 2015. For breeding the dark red cultivar with good propagation, ‘Gohong’ cultivar and ‘0708047’ the line with the similar color were crossed on August in 2011. Fruits were harvested after 2 months and seeds were separated from the peel. They were sterilized by C2H5OH 70% and NaOCl 2%, and then sowed in 100 mL mass flask filled with Kyoto medium + charcoal 0.1%. A young shoot was cut and root was removed, and then grafted into a young vine cactus, Hylocereus trigonus, in vitro. This grafted cactus was firstly planted into test tube with the same medium. After 6 months, a young moon cactus, only the scion, was secondly grafted into a vine cactus in vivo. The phenotypic characteristics of this were surveyed three times from 2013 to 2015, according to guidelines of Gymnocalycium mihanovichii. ‘Bulbit’ has flat round shape, and dark red skin (R 46B). This cultivar has average 10.4 ribs. The spine in the areole was brown color. The spine averagely grew to 5.2 mm in the straight shape. The shape of tubercle on the rib was projecting. This was 39.7 mm in diameter and averagely produced 18.3 offsets for 10 months from planting. The preference score of this was 4.5 on a five-point scale. On June 12th 2017, ‘Bulbit’ was registered (registration No. 6753) and is now protected by Korean Seed Industry Law.
농가 선호도가 높은 진한 적색 비모란선인장 ‘Bulbit’ 품종은 진한 적색 ‘Gohong’ 품종을 모본으로, 진한 적색 ‘0708047’ 계통을 부본으로 하여 2011년에 교배하여 육성된 교배종이다. 종자를 70% C2H5OH와 2% NaOCl로 멸균처리한 후, 100mL 삼각플라스크 0.1% 활성탄이 첨가된 Kyoto 배지에 파종하였다. 발아된 유묘는 기저부를 잘라 기내에서 배양된 어린 삼각주에 접목을 하고 동일한 배지가 첨가된 시험관에 치상하였다. 6개월 재배 후 온실로 옮겨서 순화과정을 거쳤으며, 기외에서 매년 접목을 하여 총 4번을 접목하여 2013년부터 2015년까지 총 3회에 걸쳐 생육특성을 조사하였다. ‘Bulbit’ 품종은 편원형의 모양과 분홍색의 구색을 가지고 있다. 그리고 9 - 12개, 평균 10.4개의 능(rip), 5.2mm의 짧은 직립형 갈색 가시, 그리고 혹(tubercle)이 돌출된 형태로 모구가 구성되어 있다. 정식 10개월 후 ‘Bulbit’ 품종의 구직경은 39.7mm였으며 자구는 모구와 같은 진한 적색으로 평균 18.3개가 생성되었다. 2015년 육성계통 평가회에서 ‘Bulbit’ 품종은 기호도 점수 4.5을 받았다. 2017년 6월 12일에 이 품종은 국립종자원에 등록되었으며 종자산업법에 의해 품종보호(등록번호 6753)를 받게 되었다.
- Breeding of Moon Cactus ‘Bulbit’ with Dark Red Color and Excellent Propagation