• Research Article

    Effect of Benzylamino Purine (BA) and Gibberellic Acid (GA3) on Growth and Flowering in Schlumbergera truncata

    BA와 GA3가 게발선인장의 생장 및 개화에 미치는 영향

    Gee Young Lee, Youn Hee Kim, Jae Hong Jung, Ho Seob Soh, and Sang Dug Lee

    이지영, 김윤희, 정재홍, 소호섭, 이상덕

    Having a variety of flower colors makes Schlumbergera truncata more valuable as an ornamental. S. truncata quality is mainly determined based on ...

    게발선인장(Schlumbergera truncata)은 꽃이 화려하고 화색이 다양하여 소비가 많은 다화성 선인장이다. 게발선인장의 상품성을 높이기 위해서는 엽상경수를 많이 확보하고 엽상경 선단의 착화율을 ...

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    Having a variety of flower colors makes Schlumbergera truncata more valuable as an ornamental. S. truncata quality is mainly determined based on the number of phylloclades and flowering at the apical phylloclades. Cytokinins have been shown to promote branching and flowering in Cactaceae. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of growth regulators on the plant growth and flowering of four cultivars of S. truncata: ‘Orange Candle’, ‘Pink Dew’, ‘Red Roman’, and ‘Snow Queen’. Foliar treatments of benzylamino purine (BA) or both a mixture of BA and gibberellic acid (GA3) were applied (100-200 mg·L-1) when plants reached the three-phylloclade stage under a long-day photoperiod. All plants treated with BA alone or the mixture of BA and GA3 produced more phylloclades and branches than the control. Application of BA significantly produced more phylloclades and branches than BA in combination with GA3. However, BA application shortened the length of phylloclades, while adding GA3 to BA promoted the elongation of phylloclades but delayed flowering. During the second trial, only BA was applied at 0 to 100 mg·L-1 to the plants at the two-phylloclade stage under a long-day photoperiod. The number of phylloclades increased by 19.8-33.0% without shortening the length of phylloclades when BA was applied at 50 or 75 mg·L-1 concentration. The number of flower buds increased by 100 to 190% under short days when BA at 100 mg·L-1 was applied on ‘Orange Candle’ and ‘Red Roman’, while BA application at 150 -200 mg·L-1 increased only from 33.0 to 41.7% in ‘Pink Dew’ and ‘Snow Queen’. The number of flower buds increased with the higher concentration of BA, but the number of days to flower decreased and the length of the flowers shortened. In conclusion, Only BA application appears to be more effective for increasing the number of phylloclades and flower buds in S. truncata.


    게발선인장(Schlumbergera truncata)은 꽃이 화려하고 화색이 다양하여 소비가 많은 다화성 선인장이다. 게발선인장의 상품성을 높이기 위해서는 엽상경수를 많이 확보하고 엽상경 선단의 착화율을 높이는 것이 중요하다. Cytokinin류의 생장조절제는 선인장의 분지수 증가와 개화를 촉진하는 데 이용되어 왔다. 이 연구는 BA와 GA3 처리가 게발선인장 ‘오렌지캔들’, ‘핑크듀’, ‘레드로망’, ‘스노우퀸’ 4품종의 생육 및 개화에 미치는 효과를 조사하기 위해 수행되었다. 엽상경이 3마디 정도 자랐을 때 BA와 GA3를 100 ‑ 200mg·L-1의 농도로 단용 또는 혼용 살포한 모든 처리구에서 무처리구에 비해 엽상경수와 분지수가 유의하게 증가하였고, BA 단용처리가 BA+GA3 혼용처리보다 효과적이었다. 한편, BA 처리 시 엽상경이 짧아졌고, GA3과의 혼용처리 시 엽상경이 길어지고 개화가 지연되거나 개화하지 않는 경향이 나타났다. BA 농도를 낮추어 재실험한 결과, BA 50 ‑ 75mg·L-1의 농도에서 엽상경 길이의 감소 없이 엽상경수가 19.0 ‑ 33.0% 증가하여 엽상경수와 분지수 증가에 효과적이었다. 개화 품질을 높이기 위해 단일기간 중 BA 살포 시 ‘오렌지캔들’과 ‘레드로망’은 BA 100mg·L-1에서 착뢰수가 100 ‑ 190% 증가하였고 ‘핑크듀’와 ‘스노우퀸’은 BA 150 ‑ 200mg·L-1에서 33.0 ‑ 41.7% 증가하였다. BA의 농도가 높아질수록 착뢰수가 증가하였고 개화소요일수는 단축된 반면 꽃의 길이는 짧아졌다. 따라서 게발선인장의 분지력 및 개화 품질 향상을 위해서는 영양생장기인 장일기간 중에 BA 50 ‑ 75mg·L-1의 농도로 살포하고, 개화 유도 시기인 단일기간에는 BA 100 ‑ 200mg·L-1의 농도로 살포하는 것이 효과적이라 판단된다.

    - COLLAPSE
    August 2020
  • Research Article

    Comprehensive Decision-Making for the Leaf-to-Fruit Ratio and Estimation of Economic Output Value of Walnut Trees Based on Statistical Analyses
    Cuifang Zhang, Cunde Pan, Hong Chen, and Shiwei Wang
    This study examined the Juglans regia ‘Xinxin2’ walnut variety using combined field control experiments with laboratory chemical analyses and analyzed the effects ... + READ MORE
    This study examined the Juglans regia ‘Xinxin2’ walnut variety using combined field control experiments with laboratory chemical analyses and analyzed the effects of the relationships among net photosynthetic rate (Pn), specific mass transfer rate (SMTR), nut dry mass (NDM), and nut yield per girdled fruit-bearing shoot (Yield) on the leaf-to-fruit ratio (LFR). We used comprehensive decision-making based on mathematical programming to determine the optimal LFR for this walnut variety in the peak fruiting stage. The optimal LFR was calculated as the comprehensive expected value of the linear combination among the equations for the effects of LFR on the Pn, SMTR, NDM, and Yield and was determined to be 2.02. Compared with walnut plants without LFR adjustment, the walnut plants with LFR adjustment using 2.02 as the minimum threshold had a 19.52% lower nut yield, a higher nut quality (Special Class, Class I, and Class II accounted for 100% of the nut yield per 670 m2), and a 36.22% higher economic output value per 670 m2. This study indicates that improving fruit quality to produce Grade I and II nuts will increase economic output, although the total yield will decrease when managing efficient LFR in nut production. - COLLAPSE
    August 2020
  • Research Article

    Shoot Growth, Bulb Development and Mineral Contents of Southern-type Garlic in Response to Elevated Temperatures in Temperature Gradient Tunnels

    온도구배터널 내 생육온도 상승에 따른 난지형 마늘의 지상부 생장, 인경 발달 및 무기성분 함량의 변화

    Seo Young Oh, Kyung Hwan Moon, Minji Shin, and Seok Chan Koh

    오서영, 문경환, 신민지, 고석찬

    This study assessed shoot growth, bulb development, and mineral content of southern-type garlic (Allium sativum L.) in a temperature gradient tunnel (TGT ...

    본 연구에서는 기후변화에 대응하여 마늘의 생육기간 동안 온도구배터널(temperature gradient tunnel)에서 재배하면서 마늘의 지상부 생육, 인경 발달 및 무기성분 함량의 변화 ...

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    This study assessed shoot growth, bulb development, and mineral content of southern-type garlic (Allium sativum L.) in a temperature gradient tunnel (TGT), to examine effects of temperature increase. TGT temperatures in the middle and outlet were maintained at +3°C and +6°C higher, respectively, than ambient temperatures at the inlet. The germination of garlic cloves occurred at 19.2 days after sowing near the inlet, yet occurred at 23.5 and 25.0 days, respectively, in the middle and outlet. At ambient and +3°C temperatures, bulbs developed well, with clove size and shape large and uniform, resulting in a high-quality commodity with high post-harvest commercial value. In all temperatures, 7-8 cloves per bulb developed, but small secondary cloves developed from the cloves in the transverse sections of bulbs grown in the middle and outlet of the TGT. The surfaces of cloves showed a distinct purple color at ambient +3°C. In addition, at elevated temperatures, the Ca and Zn content in the cloves decreased, while the K and Fe content increased, indicating that the rising temperature affects mineral absorption of garlic. Implications of this study include possible delays to sowing time, and/or delayed harvest, as a response to climate change, to avoid irregular small-sized cloves caused by secondary growth in the bulb. The results of this study, therefore, are important to maintain the productivity and quality of garlic in the future, as it becomes necessary to mitigate impacts of elevated temperature at each stage of growth.


    본 연구에서는 기후변화에 대응하여 마늘의 생육기간 동안 온도구배터널(temperature gradient tunnel)에서 재배하면서 마늘의 지상부 생육, 인경 발달 및 무기성분 함량의 변화 등을 조사함으로써 마늘 생육에 미치는 생육온도 상승의 영향을 구명하고자 하였다. 터널 중앙부와 후미부의 온도는 입구의 대기온도를 기준으로 각각 3°C, 6°C가 높게 유지되었다. 파종한 마늘 인편의 발아에는 터널 입구에서 19.2일이 소요되었는데 반해 중앙부와 후미부에서는 각각 23.5일과 25.0일이 소요되어, 터널 입구에서 재배하였을 때보다 중앙부와 후미부에서 저조하고 늦었다. 인경 발달은 대기온도 및 대기온도 + 3°C에서 더 왕성하여 크기가 크고 인편의 크기도 균일한 상태를 유지하여 상품성이 높은 인경을 수확할 수 있었다. 인편수는 모든 처리에서 7 ‑ 8개로 나타났으나 인경을 횡으로 절단하였을 때 터널의 중앙부와 후미부에서 재배한 마늘에서는 인편 내부에서 이차생장으로 인한 소인편의 분화가 관찰되었다. 또한 인편을 감싸고 있는 겉표면도 대기온도 + 3°C에서 자색의 정도가 더 뚜렷하게 나타나 진한 색깔을 보였다. 그리고, 온도가 높아졌을 때 인편 내 Ca, Zn 함량은 감소하지만 K, Fe 함량은 증가하여 온도 상승이 마늘의 양분흡수에 영향을 미침을 알 수 있었다. 따라서 기온이 상승하였을 때에는 파종시기를 늦추거나 수확시기를 앞당겨 이차생장으로 인하여 소인편이 분화되기 전에 수확하는 것을 고려할 필요가 있다. 최근 기후변화에 의한 이상기상 현상이 빈번히 발생하고 있고, 미래에는 더욱 심해질 것으로 예측되는 바, 상품성이 좋은 마늘을 수확하기 위해서는 생육단계별로 온도의 영향을 최소화할 수 있는 방안을 모색할 필요가 있을 것이다.

    - COLLAPSE
    August 2020
  • Research Article

    Effects of Immersing Treatment Period of CMV Resistant GM and non GM Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) on Seed Germination

    CMV 내성 GM 및 non GM 고추의 침수처리 기간이 종자 발아에 미치는 영향

    Kuen Woo Park, Jun Hong Kim, and Jae Sung Park

    박권우, 김준홍, 박재성

    This research was performed to provide germination characteristics of environmental risk assessment for genetically modified (GM) CMV-resistant pepper. For the germination test ...

    본 연구는 CMV 내성 GM 고추의 환경위해성 평가의 기초자료를 얻기 위하여 수행하였다. 공시품종은 CMV내성 GM고추 ‘H-15’와 non GM고추 ‘P-2377(H-15 모본 ...

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    This research was performed to provide germination characteristics of environmental risk assessment for genetically modified (GM) CMV-resistant pepper. For the germination test, a CMV-resistant GM line (H-15), its non-GM parental line (P-2377), and two non-GM cultivars (‘Shingang’ and ‘Manita’) were used. The germination of all tested lines was maintained by immersing fully matured red peppers for 60 days in a 200L container where fresh underground water was constantly supplied. The fresh peppers and seeds were placed into plastic bags filled with 3 times the amount of distilled water compared to the volume of peppers and seeds and incubated at 10, 20 and 30°C for 3 months. The germination of pepper fruits from the 4 lines was maintained for 2 months as at 10 and 20°C, but for only 1 month at 30°C. In addition, the germination of seeds from the 4 lines was maintained over 85% for 3 months at 10 and 20°C and 2 months at 30°C. A wintering test was also conducted at the farm water reservoir (7 × 7 × 1.5 m) over 2 years. The germination of the ‘Manita’ line was maintained for only 6 to 7 months and that for the other 3 lines for 7 to 8 months. It was found that the pepper seeds were geminated in the water in June (storage period: 7 months) over 20°C of water temperature. ‘Shingang’ lines with a strong spiciness had the highest germination rate, while ‘Manita’ with low spiciness had the lowest germination rate. H-15 and P-2377 with a moderate germination rate showed no significant difference between them. Since GM peppers in water germinate well for 2 months in autumn and 6 to 8 months in winter, it is important to carefully manage the peppers produced from GM farms to prevent ecological disturbance from storms, heavy rains, and other factors.


    본 연구는 CMV 내성 GM 고추의 환경위해성 평가의 기초자료를 얻기 위하여 수행하였다. 공시품종은 CMV내성 GM고추 ‘H-15’와 non GM고추 ‘P-2377(H-15 모본)’, ‘신강’, ‘마니따’등 4품종이었다. 지속적으로 신선한 지하수가 공급되는 콘테이너(200L)에 잘 익은 적색 고추를 가을에 60일 간 침수 처리한 결과, 4품종 모두가 발아력을 유지하였다. 신선한 고추 과실과 종자를 용량의 3배의 증류수를 채운 비닐 지퍼백 속에 넣고 각각 10, 20, 30°C의 인큐베이터에 3개월간 처리하였다. 과실은 4품종 모두 10°C, 20°C에서는 2개월 간 발아력을 유지했으나, 30°C에서는 1개월 동안만 발아력을 가졌다. 종자는 10, 20°C 온도처리에서 4품종 모두 3개월 간 발아율 85% 이상을 유지했다. 그러나 30°C에서는 2개월 간만 발아력을 가졌다. 고추 과일의 2년에 걸친 농장 집수조의 수중 월동시험에서 ‘마니따’만 6 ‑ 7개월, 나머지 3품종은 7 ‑ 8개월 발아력을 유지하였다. 수온이 20°C가 넘는 저장 7개월째에는 고추 종자가 수중 발아하는 것을 발견하였다. 여러 조건에서 매운 맛이 강한 ‘신강’이 가장 높은 발아율을 유지하였고 매운맛이 적은 ‘마니따’가 가장 낮았다. ‘H-15’와 ‘P-2377’은 중간 정도의 발아율을 유지하였으며, 두 품종 간에는 유의 차이가 없었다. GM 고추가 물속에서 가을에는 2개월, 겨울에는 6 ‑ 8개월 간 발아력을 가지므로 GM 농장에서 고추 열매가 폭풍, 폭우, 기타 요인으로 농장 밖으로 나가서 생태계 교란이 나타나지 않게 잘 관리해야 한다.

    - COLLAPSE
    August 2020
  • Research Article

    Effects of Different Colored Light-quality Selective Plastic Films on Growth, Photosynthetic Abilities, and Fruit Qualities of Strawberry
    Xin Peng, Bin Wang, Xile Wang, Binbin Ni, and Zhaojiang Zuo
    Light quality regulates plant growth and photosynthesis, the drivers of fruit quality, and light quality can be controlled by colored light-quality selective ... + READ MORE
    Light quality regulates plant growth and photosynthesis, the drivers of fruit quality, and light quality can be controlled by colored light-quality selective plastic films in field production. To identify the optimal color of plastic film for high-quality strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) fruit production, plant growth, photosynthetic abilities, and fruit qualities were investigated under transparent (T), red (R), yellow (Y), green (G), blue (B), and purple (P) films. The R film showed the maximum promoting effects on leaf area, petiole length, leaf biomass, and shoot biomass. The R film improved photosynthetic abilities by increasing photosynthetic pigment content, quantum yield (φPo), electron transfer (Ψo and φEo), the density of reaction centers (RC/CSm), and the photosynthetic performance index (PIabs), and by decreasing the dissipation of absorbed solar energy as heat (φDo), while varied reverse effects were detected under other films. For fruit qualities, the R film also improved fruit weight and the content of total sugar, anthocyanin, and soluble protein. Therefore, the R light-quality selective plastic film should be suitable for strawberry production due to the promoting effects on plant growth, photosynthetic abilities, and fruit weight and quality. - COLLAPSE
    August 2020
  • Research Article

    Effect of Red and Blue LED Ratio on Growth and Glucosinolate Contents of Watercress (Nasturtium officinale) in a Plant Factory

    식물공장에서 적색과 청색 LED의 비율이 물냉이의 생장 및 글루코시놀레이트 함량에 미치는 영향

    Jaeyun Choi, Gwonjeong Bok, Hyunjoo Lee, Hyeonmin Do, and Jongseok Park

    최재윤, 복권정, 이현주, 도현민, 박종석

    Watercress (Nasturtium officinale) is a perennial aquatic plant of the Brassicacea that contains a large amount of glucosinolates, which act as a ...

    물냉이는 십자화과에 속하며 다양한 기능성을 지닌 글루코시놀레이트를 함유한 다년생 수생 식물이다. 글루코시놀레이트는 항암 및 천연 산화 방지제로 DNA를 공격하는 활성산소의 활성을 감소시키는 ...

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    Watercress (Nasturtium officinale) is a perennial aquatic plant of the Brassicacea that contains a large amount of glucosinolates, which act as a natural antioxidant in the human body with anticancer activity and an ability to reduce active oxygen that attacks DNA. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of blue light with red backlight conditions on growth and glucosinolates contents of watercress. Watercress seeds were sown on soil and seedling were grown for 2 weeks. Two weeks after sowing, watercress was transplanted to a hydroponic system with the following light conditions: R10 (Red:Blue = 10:0), R9B1 (Red:Blue = 9:1), R8B2 (Red:Blue = 8:2), R7B3 (Red:Blue = 7:3), R6B4 (Red:Blue = 6:4), and R1B1G1 (control, Red:Blue:Green = 1:1:1) and cultivated for 2 weeks. The stem length, shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight, SPAD value and chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) analysis of watercress were the highest in R7B3 and the lowest in R1B1G1. The photosynthesis rate and stomatal conductance showed the same tendency as watercress growth. Glucosinolate contents in watercress were the lowest at R9B1 and the highest at R7B3. R1B1G1 had a negative effect on the growth of watercress, but played a positive role in increasing the functional component.


    물냉이는 십자화과에 속하며 다양한 기능성을 지닌 글루코시놀레이트를 함유한 다년생 수생 식물이다. 글루코시놀레이트는 항암 및 천연 산화 방지제로 DNA를 공격하는 활성산소의 활성을 감소시키는 역할을 한다. 본 연구는 광질에 따른 물냉이의 생장 및 클루코시놀레이트 함량 변화에 대해 알아보기 위해 수행되었다. 물냉이 종자를 토양에 파종하여 2주간 육묘하였다. 파종 2주 후 식물체를 수경재배 시스템에 정식하여 R10(R:B:G = 10:0:0), R9B1(R:B:G = 9:1:0), R8B2(R:B:G = 8:2:0), R7B3(R:B:G = 7:3:0), R6B4(R:B:G = 6:4:0), R1B1G1(R:B:G = 1:1:1)의 6가지의 광질 하에서 2주간 재배하였다. 물냉이의 초장, 생체중, 건물중 및 엽록소 함량 및 엽록소 형광 분석 결과 R7B3 처리구에서 물냉이의 생육이 가장 높게 나타났으며, R1B1G1에서 가장 낮게 나타났다. 물냉이의 광합성 및 기공전도도 분석 결과 물냉이의 생육과 동일한 경향으로 나타났다. 물냉이 체내 글루코시놀레이트 함량은 R9B1에서 가장 낮았으며, R7B3에서 가장 높게 나타났다. R1B1G1의 경우 물냉이의 생육에는 부정적인 영향을 미쳤으나, 기능성 물질 증대에는 긍정적인 역할을 하였다.

    - COLLAPSE
    August 2020
  • Research Article

    Altered Physical Properties of Root Media by Successive Hydroponic Cultivation and Effects of Elevated Air-filled Porosity on Ginseng Seedling Growth

    다년간 연속적 사용으로 변화된 상토의 물리성 및 기상률 증가가 묘삼 생장에 미치는 영향

    Hyung Bum Park, Sang Yong Park, In Sook Park, In Bae Jang, Dong Yun Hyun, and Jong Myung Choi

    박형범, 박상용, 박인숙, 장인배, 현동윤, 최종명

    Objective of this study was to investigate the altered physical properties of root media by the successive cultivation with nutrient solution in ...

    다년간 연속적 사용으로 변화된 상토의 물리성과 펄라이트 혼합을 통한 기상률 증가가 묘삼 생장에 미치는 영향을 구명하여 상토 물리성 개선을 위한 기준을 마련하고자 ...

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    Objective of this study was to investigate the altered physical properties of root media by the successive cultivation with nutrient solution in multiple years and supplement effects of perlite on growth of Panax ginseng. After collecting one year, two years, and three years used media, the degrees of difference in physical properties were investigated by comparing to fresh medium [new and composed of 70% peat moss and 30% perlite (v/v)]. The 1 and 3 years used media were supplemented by the perlites with the grade of 3-5 mm and 1-3 mm in diameter and supplement rates were varied. Then, physical properties were measured again to determine the degree of improvement and to decide optimum supplemental rates. Compared to the new medium, the increased number of years in successive cultivation of Ginseng seedlings resulted in the lowered proportion of large particles and the get higher proportion of small particles. The increase in the rates of small particles resulted in the rise of container capacity (CC) and the decrease of air-filled porosity (AFP) compared to fresh medium. The treatments of 1+4:9 (one year used medium supplemented with 4 g of 3-5 mm and 9 g of 1-3 mm perlites), 3+2:7 (three years used medium supplemented with 2 g of 3-5 mm and 7 g of 1-3 mm) and 3+4:9 (three years used media supplemented with 4 g of 3-5 mm and 9 g of 1-3 mm perlites per 100 g of used medium) showed similar particle size distribution, CC and AFP to fresh medium. In the ginseng cultivation experiment, there were no significant differences between new medium and the 1+4:9 medium in the growth of above-ground tissue. The ginseng growth in root medium used for 3 years showed significant lower growth than those in new medium, but the growths in the 3+4:9 treatment showed significant improvement compared to those in the 3 years used medium. The root growth in terms of root fresh and dry weights in the treatment of three years used were also significantly lighter than those of other treatments. However, growth of Panax ginseng was significantly improved in the treatment of 3+4:9 (corrected medium of 3 years used).


    다년간 연속적 사용으로 변화된 상토의 물리성과 펄라이트 혼합을 통한 기상률 증가가 묘삼 생장에 미치는 영향을 구명하여 상토 물리성 개선을 위한 기준을 마련하고자 본 연구를 수행하였다. 사용 전 상토(피트모스 70% + 펄라이트 30%, v/v)와 묘삼 재배를 위해 동일한 상토를 1, 2 및 3년 사용 상토를 수집한 후 물리성 차이를 확인하였다. 이후 1년 및 3년 상토에 직경 3 ‑ 5mm와 1 ‑ 3mm 규격의 펄라이트를 다양한 비율로 혼합한 후 다시 물리성을 측정하여 개선 정도를 판단하였고, 묘삼 재배실험을 통해 물리성 개선 효과를 입증하였다. 사용 전 상토와 비교할 때 묘삼 재배를 위한 상토의 사용 기간이 길어질수록 작은 입자의 비율이 증가하여 용기용수량 증가와 기상률 감소의 원인이 되었다. 1년 상토 100g당 3 ‑ 5mm와 1 ‑ 3mm 펄라이트를 각각 4 및 9g 혼합한 1+4:9 처리와 3년 사용 상토에 동일한 규격의 펄라이트를 각각 2g과 7g(3+2:7 처리) 및 4g과 9g을 첨가한 경우(3+4:9 처리) 사용 전 상토와 유사한 입경분포, 액상률 및 기상률을 보였다. 인삼 재배 실험에서 1년 사용 상토는 사용 전 상토나 1+4:9 상토와 지상부 생육의 차이가 뚜렷하지 않았다. 그러나 3년 사용 상토는 다른 처리에 비해 생장이 저조하였으며, 3년 사용 상토의 물리성을 개선한 3+4:9 처리는 3년 사용 상토보다 통계적으로 유의하게 우수한 지상부 생장을 보였다. 3년 사용 상토로 재배된 인삼 뿌리 생장도 1년 사용 상토, 1+4:9 상토 및 3+4:9 상토보다 생체중과 건물중이 유의하게 가벼웠으며, 펄라이트 혼합을 통한 상토 물리성 개선이 인삼 생장 억제를 방지할 수 있는 방법임을 확인할 수 있었다.

    - COLLAPSE
    August 2020
  • Research Article

    Physical Properties of Organic and Inorganic Substrates Distributed in Domestic Market for Hydroponic Cultivation of Strawberry

    국내에서 딸기 수경 재배용 상토로 유통되는 유·무기 물질의 물리적 특성

    Yun Seob Kim, In Sook Park, Myung Sun Park, and Jong Myung Choi

    김윤섭, 박인숙, 박명선, 최종명

    This study was carried out to investigate the aging effects of coir dust (CD) and different origins of peat mosses (PM) on ...

    본 연구는 미숙성 상태의 코이어 더스트(non-aged coir dust, NACD)를 24주간 숙성시키면서 변화되는 물리성, 국내에서 유통되는 피트모스(PM)의 원산지 별 ...

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    This study was carried out to investigate the aging effects of coir dust (CD) and different origins of peat mosses (PM) on root substrate physical properties. The blending effects of CD or PM with various ratios of vermiculite (VL) or perlite (PL) on the changes in physical properties were also investigated. The physical properties of aged coir dust (ACD) compared to fresh coir dust (FCD) showed no significant differences in total porosity. But, container capacity increased from 59.6% to 71.1%, and air-filled porosity decreased from 30.1% to 18.9%. The total porosity of imported PM was, 83.8% in Estonia, 82.6% in Canada, 82.5% in Latvia, and 81.8% in Lithuania. The container capacity of Lithuanian PM was the highest with 75% followed by 73.1% in Canada, 71.8% in Latvia, 71.2% in Estonia, but the air-filled porosities were 12.5% ​​in Estonia, 10.7% in Latvia, 9.50% in Canada, and 6.90% in Lithuania. When the mixing rate of vermiculite to ACD or FCD were elevated, the total porosity was reduced and the elevation in ACD resulted in the quadratic decrease of air-filled porosity (R2 = 0.6127, p ≤ 0.01). By increasing the mixing ratio of perlite to ACD or FCD resulted in the decrease of total porosity. Similarly, by increasing the quantity in mixing ratio of pearlite to ACD, decreased the container capacity with the quadratic tendency (R2 = 0.5687, p ≤ 0.01). The elevation of mixing ratios of PL or VL influenced differently on total porosity, air-filled porosity, and container capacity in each of the imported PM. This is due to the particle size. In summary, ACD is more suitable for hydroponic cultivation of strawberry due to its lower air-filled porosity and higher container capacity compared to FCD. It is also better to increase the air-filled porosity to 15% or more by mixing PM with PL.


    본 연구는 미숙성 상태의 코이어 더스트(non-aged coir dust, NACD)를 24주간 숙성시키면서 변화되는 물리성, 국내에서 유통되는 피트모스(PM)의 원산지 별 물리성 차이, 그리고 이들 두 종류 유기물에 대한 펄라이트(PL)나 버미큘라이트(VL)의 혼합 비율 조절이 물리성 변화에 미치는 영향을 조사하여 딸기 수경재배를 위한 기초 자료를 제시하고자 수행되었다. NACD와 비교한 숙성된 코이어 더스트(aged coir dust, ACD)의 물리성은 총 공극률은 큰 차이가 없는 반면 용기용수량은 59.6%에서 71.1%로 증가되고, 기상률은 30.1%에서 18.9%로 감소되었다. 각국에서 수입된 PM의 총 공극률은 에스토니아산 83.8%, 캐나다산 82.6%, 라트비아산 82.5%, 그리고 리투아니아산 81.8%였다. 용기용수량은 리투아니아산이 75%로 가장 높고, 캐나다산 73.1%, 라트비아산 71.8%, 에스토니아산 71.2%였지만, 기상률은 에스토니아산 12.5%, 라트비아산 10.7%, 캐나다산 9.5%, 그리고 리투아니아산 6.9%였다. NACD 또는 ACD에 버미큘라이트를 혼합한 경우 총 공극률이 낮아졌고, ACD에 버미큘라이트를 혼합한 경우 2차곡선 회귀적으로 기상률이 감소하였다(R2 = 0.6127, p ≤ 0.01). NACD 또는 ACD에 펄라이트의 혼합 비율을 증가시킬 경우 총 공극률이 감소하였으며, ACD에 펄라이트의 혼합 비율을 증가시킬수록 용기용수량이 2차곡선 회귀적으로 감소하였다(R2 = 0.5687, p ≤ 0.01). PM과 PL 또는 VL을 혼합한 후의 입경 분포에 영향을 받아 각각의 PM에 대하여 VL 또는 PL의 혼합 비율을 동일한 비율로 증가시켜도 총 공극률, 기상률 및 용기용수량은 PM 종류에 따라 변화 양상이 달랐다. 이상의 내용을 요약하면 ACD는 NACD에 비해 기상률이 낮아지고 용기용수량이 증가하여 수경재배용으로 더 적합하였고, 각각의 PM에 PL을 혼합하여 기상률을 15% 이상으로 높이는 것이 다년간 상토를 사용하는 국내 딸기 수경재배에 바람직하다고 판단된다.

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    August 2020
  • Research Article

    Ethylene Control of Flowering and Sex Differentiation in Three Sex Types of Inbred Melon Lines
    Hongxia Ye, Tonglin Wang, Lv Lv, Yuqing Hu, and Bingliang Wang
    Flower types and sex expression are important traits for melon (Cucumis melo L.) and hybrid seed production. Here, we studied the effects ... + READ MORE
    Flower types and sex expression are important traits for melon (Cucumis melo L.) and hybrid seed production. Here, we studied the effects of ethrel, aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) and silver nitrate (AgNO3) on floral development and sex expression in andromonoecious, monoecious, and hermaphroditic inbred melon lines in an experimental field at Zhejiang University, Hangzhou China during the autumn of 2017. The application of 100, 200, and 400 µL·L-1 of 40% ethrel delayed the initiation of male/bisexual flowers on the main stem and inhibited the formation of lateral branches bearing female/bisexual flowers. Ethrel exposure changed the flower sex type on the main stem of the three inbred melon lines. Melon sexual types could be converted from andromonoecious to hermaphroditic, from monoecious to gynoecious, and from hermaphroditic to gynomonoecious/gynoecious and be devoid of buds destined to be male flowers. The three inbred melon lines responded differently to ethrel during floral development and sex transition, with the monoecious line being the most sensitive and the hermaphroditic line being the most insensitive. The inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis, AVG (100 mg·L-1), and the inhibitor of ethylene action, AgNO3 (300 mg·L-1), were ineffective in altering sex expression. However, the male/bisexual flowers on the main stem formed at lower nodes in AVG- or AgNO3-treated plants, resulting in earlier flower initiation for the hermaphroditic line. Thus, the application of AVG or AgNO3 promoted earlier fruit setting in hermaphroditic melon. In addition, the use of ethrel to induce male sterility in melon could replace the expensive labor necessary for the mechanical emasculation of hybrids and ensure hybrid seed purity. - COLLAPSE
    August 2020
  • Research Article

    Phenotype and Ploidy Analysis of the Colchicine- induced M1 Generation of Echeveria Species
    Raisa Aone M. Cabahug, Ha Tran Thi My Khanh, Ki-Byung Lim, and Yoon-Jung Hwang
    Mutation breeding is an important tool for developing new cultivars in horticulture. Among the many methods of mutation breeding, chemical mutation is ... + READ MORE
    Mutation breeding is an important tool for developing new cultivars in horticulture. Among the many methods of mutation breeding, chemical mutation is highly effective and can be performed easily. Compared to natural breeding methods, higher mutation rates and the faster induction of desirable characteristics have been reported with the use of chemical mutagens. Succulents have recently gained popularity because of their unique geometrical shapes and their ability to survive with minimal watering. Succulents that have peculiar shapes and colors demand higher prices. In this study, we used colchicine, a chemical mutagen, and tested its application on three Echeveria succulent species. A phenotypic evaluation was conducted on the mutant succulents produced from the application of colchicine on propagated leaf cuttings. Phenotypic evaluation included plant parameters and morphological analysis. Ploidy analysis was conducted to confirm the effects of the mutagen treatments. In all selected Echeveria species, the use of colchicine produced mutant species that varied significantly from those of the control; however, treatment concentration and duration varied per species. The phenotypic evaluation revealed that colchicine-mutated plants exhibited compactness, with mutants being generally taller with a thicker but shorter plant diameter compared to that of the control. Mutated plants exhibited prominent changes in color for the a* and b* values. Similarly, changes in leaf shape were observed and were evident at their apexes. These morphological changes are attributed to the change in ploidy level, which was confirmed through stomata and ploidy analysis. Larger stomata size was accompanied by lower stomata density. Based on the flow cytometry analysis, mutated succulents exhibited a 2x-4x complex. - COLLAPSE
    August 2020
  • Research Article

    Effect of Individual Plants of Inbred Line Used as Parents on F1 Phenotype Characteristics and Germination by Storage Period of Seed-propagated Strawberry

    종자 딸기 저장기간에 따른 발아율과 교배친 근교계통의 각 개체가 F1 품종 표현형에 미치는 영향

    Jong Hyuk Kim, In Seok Um, Sun Yi Lee, Do Sun Kim, Ho Jeong Jeong, and Il Rae Rho

    김종혁, 엄인석, 이선이, 김도선, 정호정, 노일래

    This work assessed the percent germination according to seed storage duration and influence on F1 hybrid progeny by individual plants of inbred ...

    종자번식 F1 hybrid 딸기 ‘Seeberry’ 품종의 저장기간에 따른 종자 발아율과 형태적 특성을 분석한 결과, 발아율는 교배 당해 연도가 90% 내외로 가장 높았고 ...

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    This work assessed the percent germination according to seed storage duration and influence on F1 hybrid progeny by individual plants of inbred lines, used as parents in crosses, in the F1 hybrid strawberry cultivar ‘Seeberry’. Seed germination was the highest, at approximately 90%, when seeds were sown in the year of crossing. Percent germination dropped to 40-50% after 1-2 years of storage, with further substantial decreases in percent germination after 3, 4, and 5 years of storage. For stored seed, therefore, the optimal storage duration was about 2 years. However, germination of stored seed could be substantially improved, up to approximately 90% germination, with the application of a priming treatment such as MgCl2. The degree of uniformity of F1 hybrid progeny with advancement of selfing generation of cross parents showed no significant differences both in crosses between the S9 or S10 generation. However, when individual F1 crosses of the S9 generation were considered, one of nine crosses exhibited reduced plant vigor and yield. Overall, for optimal germination, F1 hybrid seed strawberry should be sown in the same year as crossing. Where storage is required, seeds should be sown within 2 years, preferably with a priming treatment to improve germination. Furthermore, vegetative propagation of each individual of inbred lines using crossing parents appears preferable to seed propagation for maintaining the purity of the F1 hybrid cultivar.


    종자번식 F1 hybrid 딸기 ‘Seeberry’ 품종의 저장기간에 따른 종자 발아율과 형태적 특성을 분석한 결과, 발아율는 교배 당해 연도가 90% 내외로 가장 높았고, 보관 1 ‑ 2년차는 40 ‑ 50%였으며, 3년차부터는 발아율이 급격히 떨어져 적정 종자보관기간은 2년 내외인 것으로 나타났다. 그러나 저장된 종자의 경우 MgCl2를 이용한 priming 처리로 종자의 발아율을 90%까지 향상시킬 수 있었다. 종자딸기 교배친의 세대진전에 따른 F1 개체들의 균일도를 조사한 결과, S9와 S10 세대 간에 큰 차이는 없었다. 그러나 교배친으로 사용된 S9 계통의 각 개체별 교잡에 따른 F1 식물체의 변이를 조사한 결과, 9조합 중 1조합에서 초세와 수량이 약화되는 조합을 발견할 수 있었다. 따라서 F1 종자딸기 품종의 종자는 교배 당해 연도 파종이 가장 우수하나, 보관할 경우 보관기간은 2년 이내로 하고 발아율 향상을 위해 priming 처리 등이 필요한 것으로 나타났다. 또한 F1 품종의 순도를 유지하기 위해 교배친으로 이용된 개체를 영양번식을 통해 유지, 증식이 필요한 것으로 나타났다.

    - COLLAPSE
    August 2020
  • Research Article

    Development of an Efficient Screening Method for Resistance of Chinese Cabbage Cultivars to Black Rot Disease Caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris

    Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris에 의한 배추 검은썩음병의 효율적인 저항성 검정법 개발

    Soo Min Lee, Yong Ho Choi, Heung Tae Kim, and Gyung Ja Choi

    이수민, 최용호, 김흥태, 최경자

    Black rot caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) is one of the most serious diseases of crucifers world-wide. To establish the ...

    Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris(Xcc)에 의한 검은썩음병은 전세계적으로 배추과 작물에 발생하는 가장 심각한 병 중 하나이다. 본 연구는 배추 검은썩음병의 효과적인 ...

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    Black rot caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) is one of the most serious diseases of crucifers world-wide. To establish the efficient screening methods for resistant Chinese cabbage to Xcc, the resistance degree of 88 commercial cultivars of Chinese cabbage to Xcc KACC 10377 was examined. For further study, we selected six Chinese cabbage cultivars (resistant: Mansumugang, Woldongcheonha, CR Anshim; susceptible: Bulam3ho, Chunkwang, CR Nongshim) showing different disease response to the Xcc KACC 10377. According to growth stages of Chinese cabbage seedlings, inoculation density, and incubation temperature and period after inoculation in a dew chamber, development of black rot on the six cultivars was investigated. From the results, we suggest the following method for selection of Chinese cabbage seedlings that are resistant to Xcc. The efficient method is to inoculate 10-day-old Chinese cabbage seedlings with an cell suspension of Xcc at a concentration of 1.0 × 108 cfu/mL using the spray method and to incubate the inoculated plants in a dew chamber at 30°C for 48 hours and then transfer to a growth chamber at 25°C with 80% RH under a 12 hour light/dark cycle. Disease severity of the plant can be measured six days after inoculation.


    Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris(Xcc)에 의한 검은썩음병은 전세계적으로 배추과 작물에 발생하는 가장 심각한 병 중 하나이다. 본 연구는 배추 검은썩음병의 효과적인 병리검정법을 확립하기 위하여, 시판 배추 품종 88개를 구입하고 이들 품종의 Xcc KACC 10377에 대한 저항성을 조사하여 저항성 정도가 다른 6개의 배추 품종(저항성: 만수무강, 월동천하, CR안심; 감수성: 불암3호, 춘광, CR농심)을 선발하였다. 선발한 6개 배추 품종을 사용하여 배추 유묘의 생육 정도, Xcc 접종원 농도 그리고 병원균 접종 후 습실처리의 온도 및 기간에 따른 이들 품종들의 검은썩음병 발생을 조사하였다. 이들 결과로부터 배추 품종들의 검은썩음병에 대한 저항성 정도를 검정하기 위한 방법으로, 배추 종자를 파종하고 온실(25 ± 5°C)에서 10일 동안 재배한 배추 유묘에 1.0 × 108cfu/mL 농도로 조정한 Xcc 세균현탁액을 분무하여 접종하고, 접종한 식물을 30°C에서 48시간 동안 습실처리한 후에 생육상(25°C, 상대습도 80%)으로 이동하여 광을 조사하면서 6일 동안 재배한 후에 검은썩음병 발생을 조사하는 것을 제안하고자 한다.

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    August 2020
  • Research Article

    Development of Microsatellite Markers Using Next-Generation Sequencing and Genetic Characterization in Three Natural Monument Populations of Koelreuteria paniculata (Goldenrain Tree)
    Jei-Wan Lee, Sang-Chul Kim, Sookyung Shin, Ji-Young Ahn, and Min-Woo Lee
    This study was conducted to develop microsatellite markers in Koelreuteria paniculata using next-generation sequencing. A total of 71,114,562 reads of ... + READ MORE
    This study was conducted to develop microsatellite markers in Koelreuteria paniculata using next-generation sequencing. A total of 71,114,562 reads of 20x coverage for the K. paniculata genome were generated and assembled to 141,924 contigs of a minimum of 500 bp long. One hundred seventy-nine of the 79,633 contigs containing microsatellite regions were used for primer design. Fourteen primer sets were selected as polymorphic markers by applying them to three K. paniculata populations, designated as natural monuments in Korea. Somewhat low levels of genetic diversity were observed. The grand means of the number of alleles, observed heterozygosity, and expected heterozygosity were 2.7, 0.493, and 0.407, respectively. Analysis of molecular variance indicated a high level of genetic differentiation among populations. Distinct patterns of three populations were identified in the principal coordinate analysis and Bayesian structure analysis. The probability of identity of these markers was estimated to be quite low, suggesting that these markers have the robust potential power to distinguish genetically different individuals. K. paniculata has a high economic value as an ornamental tree, and a honey tree. The novel microsatellite markers developed in this study will be useful for future breeding programs and genetic studies aimed at developing conservation plans. - COLLAPSE
    August 2020
  • Research Article

    Evaluation of the Genetic Resources of Kiwifruit with Multivariate Analysis

    다변량 분석을 이용한 키위 유전자원의 특성 평가

    Mockhee Lee, Hong Lim Kim, Han-Cheol Rhee, Yong-Bum Kwack, H. M. Prathibhani C. Kumarihami, and Jin Gook Kim

    이목희, 김홍림, 이한철, 곽용범, 헤라쓰 무디얀셀라지, 김진국

    This study was carried out to evaluate the horticultural characteristics of kiwifruit genetic resources (Actinidia spp.) conserved in Korea to identify the ...

    본 연구는 국내 보존 중인 140여 점의 다래나무속 유전자원 중 주요 재배종인 A. deliciosa 종과 A. chinensis 종의 원예적 특성을 조사·평가하기 ...

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    This study was carried out to evaluate the horticultural characteristics of kiwifruit genetic resources (Actinidia spp.) conserved in Korea to identify the useful traits for the selection of a genetic resource, to classify genetic resources by traits, and to use the genetic resources in a breeding program. In the experiment, traits of 28 kiwifruit germplasms were investigated and fruit characteristics after ripening were analyzed. As the results of the characterization of 28 Actinida spp. genetic resources, the bud break period was reported from late March to early April, while the full blooming commenced during mid-May to late May. The harvest date varied from October 20th to November 15th, which was longer than the full bloom date. The kiwifruit weight ranged from 61.3 g to 143.2 g, while ‘Kuimi’ kiwifruit had the highest average fruit weight (143.2 g). The soluble solids content of ripened kiwifruit 30 days after harvest was highest in ‘Hongyang’ (16.8 °Brix) kiwifruit. The highest vitamin C content (165.9 mg/100 g FW) was recorded from ‘Lushanxiang’ kiwifruit. Among the quantitative traits, the fruit weight showed the highest variation in kiwifruit external traits. Among the internal traits of kiwifruit, the coefficient of variation was higher in vitamin C content followed by quinic acid content and titratable acidity. As a result of correlations among the quantitative traits, the kiwifruit weight showed a higher correlation with the fruit diameter than fruit length. The soluble solids content was negatively correlated with kiwifruit weight, but it was not significant. From the principal component analysis, 11 quantitative traits were compressed into 5 components. Based on the 5 components, 28 kiwifruit germplasms were divided into 4 clusters. The results of this study elucidate the characteristics of kiwifruit genetic resources and can be used as a database for selecting cross combination in kiwifruit breeding programs.


    본 연구는 국내 보존 중인 140여 점의 다래나무속 유전자원 중 주요 재배종인 A. deliciosa 종과 A. chinensis 종의 원예적 특성을 조사·평가하기 위해 수행되었다. 또한, 다변량 분석을 활용해 계통선발에 유용한 형질을 파악하고 형질별로 자원을 분류하여 육종 프로그램의 기초자료로 활용하고자 하였다. 키위프루트 유전자원 28점의 형질을 조사하고 후숙 후 과실 특성을 분석하였다. 키위프루트 유전자원 28점에 대한 형질 조사 결과, 발아기는 3월 하순부터 4월 상순까지였고 만개기는 5월 중하순이었다. 수확기는 10하순부터 11월 중순까지로 만개기보다 길었다. 과중의 범위는 61.3 ‑ 143.2g이었으며 ‘Kuimi’가 평균과중이 143.2g으로 가장 무거웠다. 후숙 후, 가용성 고형물 함량은 ‘Hongyang’이 가장 높았고 비타민 C 함량은 ‘Lushanxiang’이 가장 높았다. 양적 형질 중 과일의 외형에서는 과중이 가장 변이가 높았고 과실 특성에서는 비타민 C 함량, 퀸산 함량, 적정 산 함량 순으로 높은 변이계수를 보였다. 과중은 횡경과 상관계수 r = 0.921의 높은 정의 상관관계를 가졌다. 가용성 고형물 함량은 과중과 r = ‑ 0.154의 약한 부의 상관관계를 보였지만 통계적으로 유의한 차이가 없었다. 주성분분석으로 11가지 양적 형질이 5가지 주성분으로 압축되었으며 5가지 주성분에 기초하여 28개의 키위프루트 유전자원은 4개의 군집으로 나뉘었다. 이 연구의 결과는 키위프루트 유전자원의 특성을 이해하고 육종 프로그램에 있어 교배조합을 선정하는 데 필요한 기초자료가 될 것으로 생각된다.

    - COLLAPSE
    August 2020